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Nigeria And Alternative Energy Source

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To promote commercial viability and further investment in the power sector, the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC), in 2015, announced a 45 per cent tariff increase, designed to come into effect on February 01, 2016, which was nullified by a decision of a federal high court.
Although the organized labourhailed the decision of the court, others, mostly energy industry practitioners, criticized it. To the former, the Nigerian Electricity Supply Industry (NESI) should improve its performance before considering a tariff increase. And to the later, an improved electricity supply hinges on the implementation of cost-reflective tariffs.
After about five days, NERC approved increase in electricity tariff by the 11 Electricity Distribution Companies (DISCOs) in the country. “The new tariff regime takes effect from January 1, 2020”.
This time consumers may have appeared to be silent, yet asking a loudly quiet question; “is it about tariff increase or quality service delivery?”. Consumers no doubt appreciate the challenges of the power generators and distributors, but those challenges would go noticed when no quality service is dispensed to the consumers at the end of the day.
The consequences of this abysmal service delivery for Nigeria’s economic development are well-understood, and the causes of the deplorable situation are laid bare, it is still not certain which way to take, out of the problem.
Everyone knows that shortages in electricity supply, are significantly impeding Nigeria’s economic growth. OlayinkaOyedepo (2012), in his work on “Energy, Sustainability and Society”, stated that about 60 to 70 percent of the Nigerian population does not have access to electricity.
Suffice it to say that while some parts of the country have little or no access to the national grid, in other areas, electricity is only available for short and varying periods of the day.
This ongoing failure of the Nigerian power sector to provide adequate electricity supply to domestic households and industrial producers has not only contributed in crippling the agricultural, industrial and mining sectors, it daily impedes the country’s economic development.
There is no doubt that the present power crisis afflicting Nigeria will persist unless the government diversifies the energy sources in domestic, commercial and industrial sectors and adopts new available technologies to reduce energy wastage and to save cost.
The writer is of the view that given the fundamental nature of electricity to the socio-economic development of Nigeria and poverty eradication, nothing short of access to modern energy services which though had remained an enormous challenge facing the African continent, can suffix.
Although from an economic point of view, implementing the country’s renewable energy target will have significant costs, nevertheless, its contribution to the sustainability of economic, environmental and social development of our country; Nigeria, far outweighs its cost.
Recall that way back in 2005, the Energy Commission of Nigeria developed a Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP) which suggested ideas for renewable energy policies, as well as possible technologies that could be used to fulfill their goals. Nigeria’s target, at that point, was to expand her energy access to 90 percent of the population by the year 2030.
With the above projection, the expectation was that 30 percent of the total energy generation would be solely from renewable sources, a course which, if well executed, will not only regularise power supply in the country, but will reduce significantly the energy bills for poor households.
Since 2005, Nigerian power reforms have focused on privatizing the generation and distribution assets as well as encouraging private investments in the power sector generally, while government retained the power to control transmission assets and creating a regulatory environment attractive to foreign investors.
This conscious effort in this direction actually robbed off on Nigeria’s primary energy consumption which came up to about 108 MW in 2011. According to official report, most of the energy came from traditional biomass and waste, which accounted for 83 percent of total primary production. The rest was from fossil fuels (16 percent) and hydropower (1 percent).
Midway into the projected year 2030, renewable energy penetration in Nigeria is still in its nascent stage. Until late, Nigeria generates a small amount of energy from renewable sources. The only source of renewable energy in the country is hydro-power and biomass; wind and solar energy have only been deployed in a minuscule amount.
However, with emerging energy policies and initiatives, wind and solar energy generation projects are gradually being planned throughout the country. With the discovery of their high potentials and benefits for Nigeria’s environment and society, developments in solar and wind energy are gradually increasing.
In February 2018, Nigeria completed the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Project, which supplied about 261,938 citizens with clean renewable energy. This project was in partnership with USAID, private donors, government agencies, financial institutions and non-governmental organizations. The goal of the project was to build connections to 2.5 MW of power through off and on grid sources, which will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 4.5 million metric tons.
Nigeria no doubt, has the potential to generate most of its energy through solar. After all, most of the big cities in Nigeria (Lagos, Abuja, Benin City, Port Harcourt, Kaduna and Kano) now power their street lighting with solar energy through state beautification projects.
Two years ago, the Lagos State Government signed a contract with UK- based Low Energy Designs for the supply and installation of energy efficient streetlights. The project covered about 300 km of road. The $6.9 million contract included the provision of an intelligent control system for real time operation of the LED streetlights.
The World Bank’s loan to Nigeria to build a solar power grid by 2023 that will help generate power for hospitals, rural areas, schools and households, should be a stepping stone for the government to diversify its energy source for other sectors.
Apart from reducing overall energy consumption, lowering carbon emissions, solar lighting technology allows the customer to be in control of light intensity. Moreso, the ability to remotely monitor operations is expected to reduce maintenance costs.
With lighting manufacturers virtually non-existent in Nigeria, we can still push to the next level, revolutionize the energy market and increase sustainability for the future in Nigeria by partnering with recognized established local companies to manufacture low energy design lighting’s.

 

By: Sylvia ThankGod-Amadi

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Opinion

Media And #EndSARS Saga

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For about two weeks, last month, thousands of young people across Nigeria and abroad took to the streets to call for the dissolution of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), an infamous police unit accused of extortion, extrajudicial killings, rape and torture.
This was the first time Nigerians had made such a demand. It was, however, by far, the first time their calls garnered such widespread support and international media coverage, thanks largely to the prominent role of social media in spreading the word.
The peaceful protests against police brutality began on October 8th after a video showing a suspected SARS operative killing a man, was widely shared online. The EndSARS hash tag swiftly started trending, boosted in part by Nigerian celebrities and high-profile personalities with large followings. As the hashtag also spread beyond the country’s borders, a number of Nigerian Twitter users announced they would help cover the phone bills of others. So they could afford to keep tweeting and maintain momentum.
Encouraged by the first protest held in Lagos, Nigeria’s commercial capital, Uloma Nwoke and her friends decided to also organize one in the Lekki area of the City. They shared a flyer detailing the time and location of the protest on various social media. By October 10, they were surprised to see that nearly 1,000 persons had descended on the site. “A lot of celebrities and influential people showed up”, Nwoke said.
Meanwhile, thousands of kilometers away, Omolare Oriye, a human rights lawyer, was organizing a protest via WhatsApp in South Africa’s capital, Pretoria. A video of Nigerian Police officers manhandling demonstrators circulating on Twitter, prompted her to act.
“I contacted the Nigerian Students Association in Pretoria who put me in touch with Nigerian students”, said 32-year old Oriye. “We met at the (Nigerian) embassy in mid-October, the protest movement got an extra push from Twitter’s CEO, Jack Dorsey, who used the EndSARS hashtag as he posted a donation link associated with the feminist coalition, one of the most prominent groups supporting protesters on the ground while the amplification of the protest by celebrities and social media influencers bridged the information gap left by local news outlets, protesters resisted attempts by government officials to single out influential personalities as spokespeople via invitations to join newly instituted panels on Police reforms. Having witnessed other movements fizzle out following closed-door meetings and government representatives, many activists cautioned against such appointments. Nwoke, 25, described the tendency of celebrities to monopolise the microphone at protest venues, depriving those most affected by SARS the opportunity to share their experiences.
“It was one of the biggest challenges for me, of celebrity worship and narcissism. “Most of them just want to always be in front. We had to start profiling (speakers)”. It’s a sentiment also shared by Oriye. Celebrities are great for amplification, but they are not movement leaders, arguing that many are ill-informed and had, in the past, diverted attention away from knowledgeable activists. Apart from raising awareness about police brutality and coordinating protests on the ground, various EndSARS organizers used social media to connect with volunteers, accept donations from different parts of the world and publish accounts of disbursed funds through frequent updates.
Information about emergency helplines and ways to circumvent a potential Internet shutdown also spread freely and widely. Essentially, observers say, social media democratized the EndSARS movement, allowing users with varying numbers of followers to pitch, improve or reject ideas, solicit donations or start food banks to feed protesters.
This entire movement was born, bred and salvaged online communications lead for not-too-young Nigerians into public office. There was a constant reminder that there was no leader (which) strengthen people’s voices and close any avenue for compromise.
On the news front, web-based publications, largely geared towards millennials, kept the protest in the fore alongside witnesses armed with smartphones, as most traditional media outlets ostensibly wary of running foul of the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation’s directive to be cautious with user generated content and to not embarrass the government, kept off.
It hurt me personally that people were dropping dead on the street and news channels were talking about some irrelevant subjects, as the peaceful protest grew in size after. Entering their second week, hoodlums in Lagos and the capital, Abuja also vandalized public buildings, burned private businesses and stormed prison facilities to help inmates escape, prompting state governors to impose curfews to curb the escalating unrest.
President Muhammadu Buhari in a belated nationwide broadcast said, 51 civilians were killed and 31 injured since demonstrations began, blaming the violence on hooliganism. He added that 11 police men and seven soldiers had been killed by rioters.
Buhari’s statement came two days after Amnesty International put the death toll at 56, with about 38 killed on October 20, the same day security forces opened fire on unarmed demonstrators in Lekki, in an attack that was livestreamed on instagram by a witness and caused widespread outrage. Amnesty said it’s on the ground investigation by Amnesty. International media confirmed that the army and police killed at least 12 peaceful protesters in Lekki and Alausa, another area of Lagos where EndSARS protesters were being held. The army has denied involvement of their men in the shooting.
The Nigerian press refused to cover the issue initially, so it forced us to rely on social media to record information to preserve the truth and possible evidence, some Nigerians remain unconvinced by the video evidence, in a now-deleted tweet, an actress with more than one million followers seemingly cast doubt on the Lekki shooting, requesting the bereaved to speak out. Others, however, are urging those with proof to store it in the cloud, away from potential government interference.
In conclusion, I think 2023 will be interesting for the future of the country because there is rage. But there is also the realization that if we come together and plan towards something, we can achieve it.
Achugo wrote from Eastern Polytechnic, Port Harcourt.

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Opinion

Still On 2020 US Election

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The November 3, 2020, Presidential Election was arguably the most important election in United States post-war history. In these elections, therefore, the participation of American voters was the largest since 1900, demonstrating the resurgence of their political interest and the strongly polarizing climate that prevailed in the country. Át the same time the Democratic Party candidate, Joe Biden, may have won the popular vote (4.5 million more votes than President Donald Trump) and the necessary electors, but Trump has shown great resilience, having in fact against him almost all the media, the vast majority of Hollywood.
These elections showed the deep division in the United States, which in many places led to extremely marginal election results. The intense confrontation between the two sides and the extreme rhetoric and practice is not an isolated event and may deepen even further, having a negative impact on the country.
The reasons for Trump’s electoral resilience are due to the fact that the US President had adopted an anti-systemic rhetoric of complaint of the elites, to which he however belongs, as well as an aggressive tactic against the forces of globalisation, aspects that touched strongly large sections of the middle class and, of course, the working class.
So, to the unemployed, to the people who feel they have no voice, to the provincials who are ridiculed for their manners and customs by arrogant metropolitan residents, even to citizens belonging to minorities but also to all large communities, such as African Americans and Latinos, Trump’s speech has found and continues to find great resonance. And this is despite the fact that all the movements for the protection of rights (black lives matter, etc.) were clearly against him.
And if the coronavirus pandemic had not occurred and the second wave had not broken out, which is hitting the United States as violently as the first, Trump would have easily won the elections. Thus, after the first three years of positive economic performances of the Trump administration, the March lockdown caused the closure of many small and medium-size enterprises, while more than 20 million Americans were suddenly left without a job.
And Trump would certainly have won the presidential election without the health crisis as Biden, who expresses the neo-liberal internationalism, the related globalization process and the “open society” of NGOs and the very powerful economic institutions such as George Soros and Bill Gates Foundations etc., clearly seemed to have run out of forces, proposals and slogans before he even crossed the finish line.
Trump’s political opponents and most analysts and pollsters had focused on the arrogant and selfish traits of his personality, an eccentric and highly impulsive no doubt billionaire, and of course they were wrong in believing that he would be defeated with a big difference. Trumpism, as an ideological and social phenomenon, is certain, therefore, that it has not left, is present and will continue to exist. Trump is not just a parenthesis in US political history but expresses specific distinct trends in American society and among the bourgeoisie.
The American citizens want to prosper economically in a country where social peace, order and security will prevail. Due to globalisation, many industrial units have left for poor countries where there is a cheap labour force. So, the US working class was greatly hurt. Trump was the one who demanded the return of the factories to his country, putting the USA and the American people first, in the context of the ideological tendency of ethnocentric conservatism.
Other countries, especially the powerful ones, may not like the politics of “America First”, but the same is not the case with the average American citizen, notably in deep America and the central states.
On January 20, Joe Biden will sit in his chair at the Oval Office with Kamala Harris as Vice President, for the first time in office, a woman of African, Jamaican and Indian descent. During his term and based on what he said the United States will return to the Paris Climate Treaty, according to which the minimum goal of the states is to keep the temperature at plus 2 degrees Celsius (+2 C), and that will be a positive development, as the climate change is not a “myth”. And this can be easily seen if one takes a look at the extreme weather phenomena that occur on the planet. Let us not forget that the United States is the second largest polluter in the world after China.
Also, multilateral organisms such as NATO, the UN and its offshoots, which have been strongly challenged by outgoing President Trump, will likely be treated differently by Biden’s administration, but US relations with its European allies may move in other directions.
It should be noted at this point that Trump had repeatedly threatened to withdraw the United States from NATO and reduce its contribution if other members showed no willingness to increase their spending on the organisation. Germany-US relations have also been strained for the past four years, with Trump threatening the German car industry and the European Union as a whole several times with duties. Washington’s relations with Brussels were also frozen after its decision to withdraw the United States from international climate agreements and Iran over its nuclear programme.
However, if the Republicans eventually win control of the Senate, it will cause many deep problems for the new President Biden, as they will block most of his legislative agenda.
In closing, I would like to emphasize that the predominance of Joe Biden, who has also starred in all the pathogenic characteristics that led America to its current decline – that is, widespread social inequalities, the problematic welfare state, the favour to the strong economic elites, international lawlessness etc.-is not going to lead the US on bright paths. Besides, he did not present an inspiring, comprehensive and convincing programme plan for the social, economic and political reorganisation of the society and the country.
Karderinis, an economist and novelist, wrote from Geece.

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Opinion

Early Marriage And Girl-Child Dev

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Early marriage occurs when the persons involved are in the ages of 13 and 15 years. In fact any marriage contracted before the age of 18 is termed an early marriage. Early marriage has become a problem affecting many nations, cultures, religions and ethnic groups.
In early marriage, the girl-child is always the one to suffer the consequences because it is associated with many problems.  In most cases, the male partner is usually older and more experienced. In the first place, the girl may not have completed her secondary education to be more knowledgeable in making the right choice in terms of marriage.
A situation where a 13-year old girl will be forced and given to a 50-year old man in marriage should be condemned. This may happen due to certain reasons. The truth is that some of the marriages involving minors, as we have seen, do not last. The cause of some divorce cases in recent times is as a result of early marriages. After marrying in ignorance, when the girl becomes aware of things she never knew before the marriage, she begins to make moves to quit. I have seen a girl whose parents forced to marry an old man. When she later saw that her mates were getting married to younger men she simply withdrew.  Others may demand to complete their secondary education or to further their tertiary institutions.
Parents will sometimes push their girl-child into marriage feeling that she is a burden to them, so giving her out in marriage will reduce the liability on them. Some parents are of the opinion that girls who go into marriage on time, will have more chances of pregnancy and bear children than graduates. Anybody can still have children after school, it just depends on planning.
I want to say that the problems associated with early marriage outweigh the gains. There is also this inequality between boys and girls which emanates from harmful social and gender norms. Parents will prefer to use their limited income to train their male children since the girl will leave the parents’ family one day.
Parents think that when girls get married on time, it will protect them from violence and insecurity, but in our society today, mature married women are also kidnapped and raped.
Others feel that younger wives are more submissive than the older ones as well as dowries paid on younger ones are less than when the woman becomes a graduate and gets more mature.
Many early marriages had caused our girls to drop out of school. In these days of civilisation, socialisation and computer age, even if a girl completes her secondary education at 18, it is still early.  An 18-year old girl needs more awareness on marriage. Marriage is not something you jump in and out of, it has to do with maturity in mind, soul and education.
Education acquired in character and in learning will guide her in managing herself when she finally settles down. With this level of education and empowerment, she can cope when the spouse is not doing enough.
I have seen a situation where a girl who got married with a school certificate requested to further her education and the husband refused and said she must first give birth to the number children he wants. If the man is not a graduate, he may be apprehensive that the woman will become his rival one day.
Most underage girls in marriage usually end up as full-time housewives. Being a  full-time housewife has its own implications.  A wife without empowerment will depend on her husband for everything. When her demands are not met troubles may occur.
When a girl gets married at a tender age, the right choice may not be there. Recommendation comes through friends, relatives and well-wishers. This kind of marriage comes with persuasion and, at the end of the day, problems occur because she never made the choice herself. When a lady gets mature before marriage, she can handle issues that may arise. She chooses her spouse herself perhaps after courtship and, in this case, will not blame anyone if problems arise.
Pregnancy and childbearing have to do with maturity. A minor or an adolescent who is unable to manage herself, going into marriage, will definitely end up frustrated. One who behaves like a baby cannot take care of another baby. At night, she may fall asleep and abandon the baby while it is crying.
In girl-child pregnancy, the danger of being infected with one form of disease or the other is there. Underage mothers have difficulty in labour because, according to medical experts, the muscles in the hip and all the mechanisms that facilitate delivery may not have developed. The cervix and the uterus which connect the womb may be affected which can lead to cervical cancer. The complication can lead to the death of both mother and child.
Furthermore, early marriage can occur when a man forcefully impregnates a girl and the parents ask the man to take her for a wife, the man could decide to drop her later. When that happens the girl becomes a single parent. This is a situation parents should guard against.
To put a stop to this in our society, government should enforce laws that will protect girls from forceful marriages and rape cases. Any rape case concerning our girls should be taken seriously and the perpetrator brought to book.
I call on the Ministry of Social Welfare and other relevant agencies saddled with the responsibility of protecting the girl-child and women to review policies and programmes that will educate communities and our schools at secondary and tertiary levels on the dangers associated with girls and early marriages.
More awareness should be raised and, in fact, local and religious leaders engage parents, informing them that empowerment of girls through education and employment is necessary.
When girls go to school, the knowledge they gain help protect them from illness, unwanted pregnancies and social vices.
Educated girls gain certain potentials, social and economic status in the society. They contribute to the health care and welfare of their immediate and extended families as well as where they come from with the income got from jobs after graduation.
An empowered girl-child can cater for her family in the absence of her husband.
Remember, train a woman and you train a nation.

 

By: Eunice Choko-Kayode

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