A research study published in Cell magazine has revealed why some people are prone to malaria than others.
While its impossible to hide from a female mosquito —the study revealed that mosquitoes track our carbondioxide exhalations, body heat, and body odor of persons they bite more often than others.
The study described these group of persons as”mosquito magnets” who get more than our fair share of bites.
It revealed that blood type, blood sugar level, consuming garlic or bananas, being a woman, and being a child are all popular theories for why someone might be a preferred snack for mosquitoes.
Though there are still grey areas here says Leslie Vosshall, head of Rockefeller’s Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior.
Lead researchers Vosshall and Maria Elena De Obaldia, a former postdoc in her lab, set out to explore the leading theory to explain varying mosquito appeal: individual odor variations connected to skin microbiota. They recently demonstrated through a study that fatty acids emanating from the skin may create a heady perfume that mosquitoes can’t resist.
“There’s a very, very strong association between having large quantities of these fatty acids on your skin and being a mosquito magnet,” says Vosshall, the Robin Chemers Neustein Professor at The Rockefeller University and Chief Scientific Officer of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
In the three-year study, eight participants were asked to wear nylon stockings over their forearms for six hours a day. They repeated this process on multiple days. Over the next few years, the researchers tested the nylons against each other in all possible pairings through a round-robin style “tournament.”
They used a two-choice olfactometer assay that De Obaldia built, consisting of a plexiglass chamber divided into two tubes, each ending in a box that held a stocking. They placed Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes — the primary vector species for Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya — in the main chamber and observed as the insects flew down the tubes towards one nylon or the other.
By far the most compelling target for Aedes aegypti was Subject 33, who was four times more attractive to the mosquitoes than the next most-attractive study participant, and an astonishing 100 times more appealing than the least attractive, Subject 19. advertisement
The samples in the trials were de-identified, so the experimenters didn’t know which participant had worn which nylon. Still, they would notice that something unusual was afoot in any trial involving Subject 33, because insects would swarm towards that sample. “It would be obvious within a few seconds of starting the assay,” says De Obaldia. “It’s the type of thing that gets me really excited as a scientist. This is something real. This is not splitting hairs. This is a huge effect.”
The researchers sorted the participants into high and low attractors, and then asked what differentiated them. They used chemical analysis techniques to identify 50 molecular compounds that were elevated in the sebum (a moisturizing barrier on the skin) of the high-attracting participants. From there, they discovered that mosquito magnets produced carboxylic acids at much higher levels than the less-attractive volunteers. These substances are in the sebum and are used by bacteria on our skin to produce our unique human body odor.
To confirm their findings, Vosshall’s team enrolled another 56 people for a validation study. Once again, Subject 33 was the most alluring, and stayed so over time.
“Some subjects were in the study for several years, and we saw that if they were a mosquito magnet, they remained a mosquito magnet,” says De Obaldia. “Many things could have changed about the subject or their behaviors over that time, but this was a very stable property of the person.”
By: Kevin Nengia
Getting Trimmed Naturally 1
There are a lot of misconceptions about weight gain. The first is that weight gain comes from extra calories we do consume that we don’t expend. Experts say we eat too much and exercise little. So if one get fatter then surely he or she must be eating too much.
The other misconception is that once we cut our food then we will naturally become trimmed. All these are hinged on the diet theory, which only works for some time.
Over the past 40 years studies have shown that you can’t get clinically significant effect from cutting down on your calories. Even though experts are saying that sloth is responsible for weight gain- they overlook one basic truth that dieting only works for a short period.
The new study that seems to break those myths about body fat is now revealing some stunning facts. The kind of food we eat makes us fat. Two scientists at University of Pennsylvania, Mitchell Lazar and Cardiologist Allan Sniderman at McGill University all in the USA have shown that that food that we eat often makes us pack in flesh. These include bread, plain baked potatoes, and plain pasta, rice, sweet corn. They confirmed that fatty foods isn’t the enemy but easily digested carbohydrates. While steak, burgers, cheese or sour cream help us lose weight and keep our heart healthy.
This sounds ironical, but it has been discovered that those who do diet and avoid those foods end up getting hungry. What happens is that when you conserve energy or burn less energy, you are bound to add more flesh. Many public health authorities want us to practice energy balance, which is a new way to say that you shouldn’t take more calories than one expends.
No matter how one counts what he or she eats, it is impossible to determine calories and know when we are over board. No matter how good you are at counting calories, you can’t do it. So its couple of sips of soft drinks and few bites of humburger that can make you add weight. That means it at the point when we eat extra than the body want that the body store excess as fat.
The myth of exercising to reduce weight is really making waves. Exercise is helpful but it’s not the main ingredient for fat burning. The phony truth is that the two things we tell people to do in order to lose weight-eat less and exercise more- are the exact two things that make one more hungry. Thus there is need for balance. If one must exercise, then it should be done moderately so as to allow the body to recover the stretch.
The reality is that insulin is the primary hormone that makes one to add weight. If one eats food that spikes insulin like bread, biscuits, sweets, soft drinks. It is refined carbohydrates that raise insulin levels in the body.
To be contd
Explained in simple terms your fat tissue is more like your wallet, and your meals are like going to the ATM. You know how you use the ATM: You put the cash in your wallet and gradually spend it, and when you get too low on cash, you go back to the ATM. It’s the insulin that locks the money in your wallet, so you keep going to the ATM, and your fat cells are getting fatter and fatter. More often you become hungry and you eat again because the insulin can’t get at the fatty acids leading to weight gain.
Low carb diet is key if you are to get trimmed. In Africa where stables are more of carbohydrate it is best to choose those with fibre. It’s difficult to follow the Atkins diet like eating skinless chicken and green salad, melted mozzarella cheese and all those western diet.
An example of a workable diet is to include eggs more often and cut down on processed foods, especially processed carbohydrate. Complex carbohydrate and vegetables have more fibre and makes you get filled quickly. Instead of Irish potato, go for sweet potatoes, oats that have more fibre. I advise people to eat garri than processed plantain and wheat meals. By the way, processed wheat can worsen the body ails.
The other way to go is, to eat low carbohydrate, and that means more of protein, fat, vegetables and complex grains like millet, and beans. With low carbohydrate, one can eat as much and still remain trimmed. A low carbohydrate is better than a low fat, low calorie diet.
Research has shown high fat diet is good for the heart. I don’t mean trans -fat but healthy fats from cheese, milk, olive oil and fish oil. Once your HDL goes up, your LDL goes down and this reduces high cholesterol and inadvertently cuts down excess insulin which is a big factor in fat burning.
The low fat diet which medical authorities promote often in the bid to reduce heart problems is actually bad for the heart as studies reveal. A study published by Readers Digest in February 2011 said, “the public health effort to get everyone to eat that way is one of the fundamental reasons that we now have obesity and diabetes epidemics”.
The strange conclusion is that not everyone gets fat from eating carbohydrates- it has to with how sensitive your fat cells are fight with muscle cells. But the huge percentage of the people who get fat got it in their high carbohydrate diet, especially processed ones. Agreed that getting rid of carbohydrate might not make you lean, but the leanest you can be is on the diet with the fewest carbohydrates.
A low carb diet has lots of health benefits- it can reduce your blood pressure, and it’s advisable to eat more of natural foods than processed foods. Our ancestors ate more of meat, vegetables and fibre from fruits. The fundamental idea is, don’t eat foods that make you fat, beyond that, you can eat as much as you want without much processed carbohydrates.
US Approves New Drug To Delay Type 1 Diabetes
A new drug that delays the onset of type 1 diabetes received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration.
It is the first therapy approved for prevention of type 1 diabetes.
The monoclonal antibody teplizumab, which will be marketed under the brand name Tzield, from ProventionBio and Sanofi is given through intravenous infusion. The therapy will carry a wholesale cost of roughly $194,000 for a full course of treatment, the drug’s manufacturer said in an investor call on Friday, although this is not expected to be the price consumers would pay.
It is thought to work by turning down the body’s misdirected attack on its own insulin-producing cells. The idea is that protecting these cells buys people more time before they become dependent on insulin to manage their condition.
In clinical trials, Tzield delayed progression to full-blown diabetes by a little over two years. But the benefits have lasted much longer in some of the study participants.
One of them, Mikayla Olsten, was screened for diabetes after her 9-year old sister, Mia, suddenly developed a life-threatening episode of diabetic ketoacidosis and was diagnosed with diabetes. There was no history of diabetes in the family, and Mikayla was not sick, but she had four of the five types of autoantibodies that doctors look for to assess a person’s risk.
“They told us when somebody has that many markers, it’s not if they’re going to develop diabetes, it’s when,” said her mom, Tracy.
Mikayla was 15 when she joined the study and received teplizumab. She is now 21 and a senior in college. She gets an annual battery of tests to check her pancreas and blood markers, and Tracy Olsten says her condition has not progressed in six years.
According to a scientific statement from JDRF, the Endocrine Society and the American Diabetes Association, when a person has markers for autoimmune disease and episodes of uncontrolled blood sugar, the five-year risk for progression to insulin-dependent symptomatic disease is 75 percent. The lifetime risk of developing insulin-dependent diabetes is nearly 100 percent.
Benefits Of Garlic To Health
Garlic is a bulbous herb vegetable that is scientifically called Allium sativum.
A lot of people do not like to take garlic because it is assumed to cause mouth odour when eaten raw. Little do you know that garlic has more health benefits to the body than you had imagined.
According to research, garlic is said to be an antibiotic and immune enhancer which helps to fight bacteria, fungi, viruses and intestinal parasites in the body. It does not lose its effectiveness when cooked.
It is also a good source of vitamin C, B6 and has other minerals like manganese and selenium. Selenium is a rich mineral resource that helps to fight cancer in the body.
Garlic can be used in several forms: from cloves and smooth paste to powders and supplements like garlic oil and extract.
It adds flavour to meals and can be easily included in diets. Garlic can be used to make savoury dishes, sauces, soups, and so on.
This article will give you more insight about the healthy benefits of taking garlic.
. Cures ear infection
Garlic has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Applying garlic cloves to your ears helps to cure the infection and gives a better sensation.
. Relieves pain in the body
Garlic has an effective way of easing the body’s discomfort. This is achieved by applying garlic oil to the affected parts.
. Improves eyesight
Scientists have made it known that the antimicrobial property of garlic helps to fight microbes causing eyesight keratitis. It also reduces intraocular pressure.
. It normalises blood sugar
According to research, consuming raw garlic helps to prevent high blood sugar, which could eventually lead to diabetes, obesity, etc. It stabilises blood sugar in the body.
. Fights cancer
Garlic contains anticancer properties, which help to improve the inflammation that could increase the risk of cancer in the body. It also boosts enzymes that destroy carcinogens.
. Boosts the immune system
Garlic consists of antioxidants which flush out toxins and reduce oxidative stress in the body. It supplements the body and increases various immune systems in the body.
. Prevents cardiovascular diseases
Heart attack and stroke are said to be some of the cardiovascular diseases responsible for death.
Garlic helps to reduce the risk of heart disease in the human body. It enhances nitric oxide, which is essential to maintaining normal blood flow. It also hinders arterial disease, blood clotting and inflammation.
. Prevents illness
Taking garlic helps to fight against illnesses and reduces the risk of common cold, flu etc in the body system.
. Fights dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
Dementia is an illness that mostly affects the aged. Garlic helps to prevent such occurrences because it has antioxidants that inhibit cell damage and loss of memory.
. Improves the skin
Due to its antioxidant and other biological properties. Garlic is said to help with improving issues in the skin such as keloid scars, wounds, psoriasis, viral and fungal infections, skin aging, etc. It aids immunity and prevents UVB damage.
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