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Unresolve Phenomenon Of Sleep Debt



Millions of people in Nigeria today are indebted to enough sleep. Many see this statement as more of a cliché that is fast becoming meaningless under unfriendly economic environment. Lack of enough sleep and relaxation to calm obvious nerves frailed due to lack of rest ethics can be devastating to the health and life  span. It is a deficit that causes immune deficiency and suppression, creating possible chances for various infections to manifest.

Infection and symptoms for diabetes, heart disease, and extreme obesity, as well as other health problems, have been linked to it. Yet, most victims are obvious of this health problem.

The reason for indebtedness to sleep is when a person does not get the amount of healthful sleep needed for the physical body. This can be caused by voluntary sleep deprivation resulting from a person’s life-style or by involuntary sleep deprivation because of illness.

Medical experts once viewed the chronic inability to seep as just one disorder, commonly called insomnia. However, a commission created by the US Congress recognised 17 distinct sleep disorders. At any rate, insomnia has so many causes that is often considered to be a symptom of other problems, such as fever related ailments. Even occasional deprivation of sleep can be disastrous.

One of the causes of sleep debt can be called 24/7. This means operating 24 hours a day, seven days a week without having good rest. USA Today describes this as “a cultural earthquake that is changing the way we live”, noting than “a new wave of round-the-clock retailers and services is profiting by mocking the clock”. In many lands people watch all night television programmes and access the internet when they should be sleeping, then there is a toll taken by emotional disorder, often involving anxieties heightened by stress and the pace of life. There are a variety of physical diseases that can contribute to sleep debts.

Most of the progress in understanding sleep mechanism has been made in the last 50 years. What has been learned explodes some long standing misconceptions; one is the assumption that since many bodily functions slow down during rest, sleep is little more than a state of inactivity.

By studying brain wave patterns, medical researchers, have reported that there are repeated cycles and stages of sleep. Far from being inactive, the human brain runs at high speed during certain periods of sleep. Healthful sleep involves going through these cycles four or more times every night and spending a sufficient amount of time in each cycle.

A normal night’s sleep is most easily divided into two types: What is commonly called REM (Rapid Eye Movement, or dream) Sleep and Non-REM (non dream) sleep. You can tell that a person is in REM sleep when the bulge of his eyeballs can be seen rapidly moving under his eyelids.

Non-REM sleep can further be divided into four stages. After lying down; you gently enter stage one – drowsiness or shallow sleep. During this stage your muscles relax and your brain waves are irregular and rapid. Its first occurrence each night typically lasts between 30 seconds and 7 minutes. When you move to stage two – true sleep – where you will usually spent 20 percent of the night brain waves become larger. You may have fragmented thoughts or images passing through your mind, but you are aware of your surroundings and cannot see even if your eyes are open.

Next are stages three and four – deeper to deepest sleep. Here, in what is also called delta sleep, your brain produce large, slow waves. It is now that your body is most difficult to rouse, as most of your blood is directed to the muscles. During this time (usually about 50 percent of the night), body recovery and repair take place, and it is during delta sleep that young bodies grow. It is important to note that anyone, youth or adult, who does not experience the deeper delta stage, will likely feel fatigued, apathetic, or even depressed the next day.

A number of factors evidently combine to create a circadian (daily) rhythm, or wake-sleep pattern, one of these is the temperature.

How much sleep do you need?

Scientists tell us that, an average human requires about eight hours of rest per night. But studies also show that individuals needs vary dramatically.

An honest self-analysis can determine if you are already in a healthful pattern or are experiencing a sleep debt.

Sleep comes easily without resorting to drugs or fighting restlessness or anxiety. Once you are up and going you feel awake and fairly alert all day.

How do we over come or tackle the issue of sleep debt.?

*those with occasional insomnia are advised not to resort to alcohols as well as stimulants such as coffee or tea near bedtime.

*avoid extreme mental or physical stimulation just before bedtime.

*quit smoking

*make sure that your bedroom is quiet, dark and, where possible relatively cool.

*again, be cautious of taking sleep – inducing medication.

Sometimes one’s symptoms may indicate a serious sleep disorder. Chronic insomnia, which lasts more than a month, is often related to more serious problems, including depression. Chronic insomnia may also be a symptom of a serious physical ailment.

Sleep Apnea (excessive day time sleepiness). It also means literally “no breath”. There are three types of Apnea. Central apnea occurs when the brain’s respiratory control centre does not give the command to breathe regularly. With obstructive sleep apnea, the upper air way at the back of the throat actually closes, blocking air movement. The third one is called mixed apnea; it is a combination of the two and is the most common diagnosis. The victim of any type of apnea can end up in virtually the same condition as someone who stayed up all night. Every night.

Another sleep disorder requiring medical attention is Narcolepsy – a neurological condition that causes excessive daytime sleepiness. Narcolepsy typically starts between the ages of 10 and 30.       Sufferers sometimes develop what is called automatic behaviour. The tragedy of this disease is that it often goes undiagnosed for years. While the victim is viewed as lazy, mentally slow, it is presently considered incurable, but symptoms can be treated with medication and adjustments in life style with varying degrees of success.

Treatment for sleep disorder should be under the supervision of a physician. Many doctors know how difficult it is to get their patients to take sleep debt seriously. Victims of sleep deprivation may not recognise that they suffer from a serious sleep disorder. Reversing this sleep debt is a complex challenge. But understanding how a healthful sleep cycle works and sleep debt can provide the motivation to change. Recognising the symptoms of  a serious sleep disorder can save lives.

Utonoejit is a student of (RSUST).


Mimanijana Utonoejit

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Trails Of Natural History



Natural history should be understood here to mean unbiased, undistorted and comprehensive records of all the experiences, including thoughts and deeds, of all creatures that have existed on Earth. Known as Akashic record in some cosmogony, such undistorted blueprints, as they relate to individual human beings, are stored in genetic memory bank which scientists call deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Human blood is the common physical fluid through which this indelible record is encoded and transmitted, generation after generation.
Humans, being endowed with a free will, by which means every individual has the freedom to make personal decisions and choices, are thus provided with a rudder as a navigational tool in the journey of life on Earth. Thus, whatever the contents of the blueprint that an individual comes into incarnation with, the duty and right for a free navigation through life remain as inalienable rights. So, with such rights every individual is daily adding, subtracting, adapting and moving forward, forced by personal experiences to acquire increasing recognition of the true realities of life. Bitter experiences teach better!
Therefore, the genetic memory bank which is borne via everybody’s blood system is a fluid rather than a fixed record, because what we call fate or destiny is alterable, not irreversible. By the exercise of individual freewill, the duty and right of free choices and decisions remain as everybody’s means of disentanglement or further entanglements, in the affairs and bargains of life. To say that everybody bears the trails of natural history, is to affirm that everybody carries the contents of everything pertaining to himself, spanning over thousands of years.
Emerging DNA technology will, no doubt, alter many strongly-held belief systems and ideas about human life; including the fact that Earth-life is a shuttle. A child born today is obviously not a new comer on Earth, just as records of such child’s previous embodiments can be readily dug out from the archives of natural history. Efforts in this new direction of exploring the apparently inexplicable mysteries of life are quite expensive to delve into. Pioneers and explorers in that direction seek neither publicity, recognition nor distraction, for obvious reasons, especially where ignorance is bliss.
Prejudice, myopia and conceit stand strongly against progress in this newly emerging DNA technology, not only because it does not offer cash or power, but more because of possible dethronement of many empires. For example, the science of cloning has advanced, veering into transmigratory controversies, with experiments of infusing the blood or breath of some donors or volunteers into a dying person, thus extending life-span. Alteration of personality and consciousness can also be made possible through such controversial practices and experiments. Dangerous aspects of such experiments include the creation of crude monsters as humans, with animal propensities.
Obviously, experiments in this line of research are done under utmost secrecy with intruders visited with ruthless penalties. Defunct Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was noted for carrying out various unconventional research activities, especially in alteration of brain and personality postures. Prisoners of war as well as captured spies and secret service agents became ready guinea pigs for such unconventional brain research activities whereby humans were turned into zombies.
There were a few cases where surviving victims of such experiments later became themselves and took legal actions which had to be halted for security reasons, but with out-of-court settlements made. It also came to light how security vote which is not subject to public audit can be applied for unethical projects. Between 1952 and 1960, records of unethical research projects were systematically destroyed and obliterated, but with the methods of proceedings altered to reflect some semblance of transparency and accountability. Yet, motives for such explorations remain same, which include being a step above, and having an edge over contenders.
Keeping security, national interests and politics of survival aside, it is a healthy practice for individuals, organisations and nations to explore and seek to grasp the realities of life. Neither is it healthy or reasonable to remain caged and boxed up by the doctrines, assertions and dogmas of intellectual humanity and orthodoxy. It is of importance to note that human progress in the recognition of the truth and realities of life has been hindered largely by prevailing human institutions via narrow interpretations of the issues of human existence.
Natural history via carbon dating and DNA technology reveal much that an average person would describe as unacceptable. New fields of academic studies such as regression, anamnesis, altered states of consciousness, etc, which are common in some universities, would be rejected as appropriate in any Nigerian university. It is true that a number of academic studies, including phrenology, had been discredited and expunged from the curriculum, yet there are new emerging disciplines not common in conventional institutions.
It is also true that a number of research or study activities pander to human ego, vanity and tend to serve dark purposes, yet, there are more issues that remain vague and unknown to humans. We cannot doubt the fact that human consciousness is an ever expanding poll, neither can we drink up all the water springing up therefrom. But human dogma and conceit are worse than the impetuous drive to explore unknown realms of life. Galileo (1564-1642) who asserted that the Earth moves round the sun was imprisoned for five years!
Current awareness which is gaining grounds gradually is the fact that trails of natural history is not only real but can be readily explored and downloaded. Everybody is not only a carrier and bearer of the totality of his or her own record of existence, dating thousands of years, but such individual records can be downloaded. Unfortunately, contents of such records can be quite shocking, shaming and unbelievable if made available to the individuals concerned. The phenomenon of stigmata has been an inexplicable mystery to many people, but the truth can be shocking and revealing, of which a 1927 incident ranks high.
Keeping phrenology, palmistry and such stuff aside, the blood of every individual is a personal identity as well as gateway to personal archives. At least the aura radiating from individuals reveal a great deal about people, for those capable of perceiving such radiations. Neither can anyone hide or obliterate his personal identity. One grace which everyone enjoys is the non-disclosure of the contents of individual natural history, so that people would not hang from the fear of what trails them, unseen by them. Wise ones strive diligently to reduce dark burdens.

By: Bright Amirize
Dr Amirize is a retired lecturer in the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt.

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Time For The Needful



As a way of providing a solution to the Boko Haram insurgency that has been bedeviling the country for decades, many suggestions have been made by groups, individuals, including security experts. One of them is that government should declare the group terrorists.
Early in the week, the Katsina State House of Assembly joined in making such call against bandits. That was part of the recommendations of  its  committee on Security’s investigation into incessant activities of bandits which said that the declaration of bandits as terrorists would give the military, the police and other security agencies the power to deal with them accordingly.
In the words of the Committee chairman, Alhaji Muhammad Abubakar: “During our investigation, we realised that the Security Containment Order signed by Governor Aminu Masari recorded a lot of successes in inhibiting the bandits. We have realised that attacks, kidnapping and killing of people by bandits have reduced by about 35 per cent”.
A similar call had been made by both the federal and state lawmakers in the recent past, asking President Muhammadu Buhari to declare bandits terrorists and enemies of the state in accordance with the law, so that the military will be decisive and firmer in dealing with them.
An online dictionary,, defines a terrorist as someone who uses violence, mayhem, and destruction — or the threat of those things — to coerce people or countries into taking a certain action.
Section1(2) of the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2011, is explicit on what should be regarded as terrorism in Nigeria: “(2) In this section ‘act of terrorism’ means an act which is deliberately done with malice, aforethought and which: (a) may seriously harm or damage a country or an international organisation; (b) is intended or can reasonably be regarded as having been intended or can reasonably be regarded as having intended to (i) unduly compel a government or international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act; (ii) seriously intimidate a population; (iii) seriously destablise or destroy the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an internal organisation; or (iv) otherwise influence such government or international organisation by intimidation or coercion and (c) involves or causes as the case may be an attack upon a person’s life which may cause serious bodily harm or death;
(i) kidnapping of a person (ii) destruction to a government or public facility, a transport system, an infrastructural facility including an information system, a fixed platform located on a continental shelf; a public place or private property, likely to endanger human life or result in a major economic loss; (iii) the seizure of an aircraft, ship or other means of public goods transport and diversion or the use of such means of transportation for any of the purposes in paragraph (b) (iv) of this subsection, (v) the manufacture, possession, acquisition, transport, supply or use of weapons, explosives or a nuclear, biological or chemical weapons, as well as research into, and development of biological and chemical weapons without lawful authority, (vi) the release of dangerous substance or causing fire, explosions or floods, the effect of which is to endanger human life; (vii) interference with or disruption of the supply of water, power, or any other fundamental natural resource, the effect of which is to endanger human life…”  Any person who engages in any of the aforementioned should be called a terrorist.
The question then is, has Boko Haram or bandits as government would rather they be called, not been doing virtually all that is listed in the Act? They have carried out and continue to carry out unprecedented destruction of both human lives and property, kidnapped hundreds of people, including school children, many of who are still being held in captivity, destroy train tracks and put the lives of hundreds of people in danger, they have shot down a military jet, killed many military men, many schools in some northern states have remained closed for several months because the authorities cannot guarantee their safety, people are being prevented from accessing their farms leading to prevailing food shortage in the country.
Just last Sunday, the former Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Director of Protocol, Alhaji Sagir Hamidu, was reported killed and scores of other travellers kidnapped on Kaduna-Abuja Road. Yet we remain comfortable pampering the apparent networks of sophisticated criminals with soothing names – armed herdsmen, kidnappers, criminals, bandits and so on, even when their onslaught is adjudged more devastating than the activities of a freedom fighting group from the South-Eastern part of the country that had long been proscribed by the federal government.
The reluctance of the federal government in declaring the bandits as terrorists, dealing with them the way they deserve is seen by many as the reason for the boldness of the criminals in daily carrying out their criminal activities. Banditry, kidnapping and terrorism have become big business in Nigeria both for the sponsors and those in the actual act. Report has it that the Nigeria Air Force has stated that they cannot deploy the Super Tucano jets recently acquired on bandits but only on terrorists in accordance with their agreement with the United States of America who sold them to Nigeria.
Not a few concerned Nigerians will, therefore, want to know why the government finds it difficult to do the needful. Is the government afraid that labelling the bandits, Boko Haram, herdsmen or whatever they are called, terrorists may lead to some greater consequences for the nation as postulated by their self-appointed spokesperson, Sheikh Ahmad Gumi? Could it be that the president is hesitant because he is from the same region with those engaged in these terrorism acts as being insinuated?
Nigeria is currently on fire because of the activities of the bandits. Known and unknown gunmen are making life hellish for the citizens and the time for President Muhammadu Buhari, the Attorney General of the Federation and all those who have any role to play in proscribing the bandits to put sentiments aside and do the expected in the interest of the nation and the citizens. The insecurity situation in the country is not insurmountable if our leaders are sincere and willing to deal with it. This I believe.

By: Calista Ezeaku

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Silent Builders



Having participated in an international conference recently, one is in a position to share with fellow Nigerians what it takes to build a nation without making any noise about it. Emphasised at that conference was the fact that ego and vanity stand in the way of effective national development, of which politicians are in the forefront as hindrance in the task of identification of talents and abilities. The theme of that conference was the collaboration between the public and private sectors of the economy with universities, for an effective nation- building; tripartite partnership!
Result of the recently concluded Anambra State Governorship election can serve as a peg for what the conference sought to promote in modern Nigeria, namely: excellence. Common drives and predilections of the average human being were examined, which included the desire to be heard and seen, even when there is little to offer humanity in terms of lasting values. Next to that predilection is the tendency to feel hurt or bitter that someone else is doing better, in spite of throwing one’s weight about and seeking for recognition. Sour-grape syndrome!
‘Silent builders’ was a term used for the few unassuming people in every society who would serve with conviction, commitment and patriotism, but without seeking for recognition, acclaim or monetary rewards, as prime motive for serving. Late Captain Elechi Amadi (rtd) raised this issue long ago when he said that the Nigerian society rarely places value on hard work, naked honesty and sacrifices. Therefore, playing to the gallery and hypocrisy became the norm in Nigerian public life. We want to rise and shine!
Every society on Earth is in a fluid state, with nothing static, but progressing either forward or backward, of which three factors force changes to take place. Those three factors are rapid growth in human population, human aspirations and human knowledge. Population increases bring pressures on available resources, forcing everyone to hustle and strive to survive. Increasing human aspirations force every adult to make some impact in the society, which can be in a positive or negative way, with human ego playing a role. And then rapid increase in human knowledge forces everyone to adapt and adjust to the demands of the moment. For example, computer literacy is a driving force in modern knowledge.
Then come human failures, of which indolence or the inability to rise up to what current challenges demand, of every individual, count as vital causes of human inequality. Thus, humans can be classified into two broad groups, namely: conservative and progressive groups of people. While the conservative elements would live and want to stay put on past glories, achievements and ideas, there would be progressive people who would explore new challenges, in spite of uncertainties and sacrifices demanded. Surely, inequalities exist among humans, arising from how people face challenges and exert personal abilities. Parasites also exist!
While some people would want to run too fast and bite more than they can chew at a time, there are also those who would be more calculating, cautious but forward-looking. For those who stand still and want to be served or told what to do, there is always a choice to rise to what the current situation demands, or stand still even when they can move.
A major challenge for the average Nigerian at this moment is, as Alex Haley would say: “either you deal with what is the reality, or you can be sure that the reality is going to deal with you”. What then is the reality? The stark reality is that every adult Nigerian is on his own, owing himself the duty to think and choose for himself, with a personal conviction and value that can ennoble rather than debase life. If Anambra voters can reject bribes to sell their votes and personal convictions, then there is hope that all Nigerians are not for sale. Those who choose to be bought and sold like commodities may wake up at their own time.
Silent builders, as depicted in an international conference, are mature and unassuming citizens of any nation whose values, actions and reactions to issues are not teleguided by the clamour of the masses, myopic interests or the lure of material gains. Silent builders are those who, like the last president of apartheid South Africa, recognise that there is tomorrow and yet another tomorrow and, therefore, remember that the bread we cast upon the sea returns to us after many years. Unfortunately, there are many leaders, including those in the ecclesia, who would not remind us that life is a shuttle, whereby we reap everything we sow.
Despite available opportunities for rapid changes, of which international conferences are ready means of acceleration of human consciousness, many people choose to remain conservative and bask in past glories. It is particularly important to highlight the fact that institutions which obstruct rapid human progress are political, ecclesiastical and academic structures, where conservatism and myopic interests predominate. Radicalism may not be the answer, neither would remaining fixated in a boxed position help matters.
Without asking for a consultancy fee, one is offering Nigerian authorities key issues stressed as vital in nation -building. Without inviting foreign consultants and Nigerian experts in diaspora, the following steps can be explored. The Nigerian public and private sectors should combine efforts from the university community to work out a road map for this country. If we can keep politics, personal ego, vanity, conceit and certificate-based claims aside, it would be possible to extract the best and unrecognised and untapped abilities from among Nigerians. It is true that some conservative people would kick against this move.
Real knowledge and expertise are not the exclusive preserves of the academic industry; rather, private industries through practical experiences, have much to offer the Nigerian economy. From agriculture to zoology, expertise and excellence abound in the private sector, but the conceit of bureaucracy and arrogance of the academia would not want to consult the private sector as partners in nation- building. Through practical experiences but with no certificate to show for it, there are Nigerians who are in a position to add great value to the academic sector. But silent builders would not want to be rubbished, mocked and humiliated by bureaucrats and egg-heads! They are not beggars!
Silent up-builders are usually unassuming, humble and sensitive people who place more value on their personal conviction and missionary zeal than on publicity and monetary gains. When approached or consulted in a proper way, some of them would want to help, but not without the condition of not wanting to be dragged into toxic politics. They may volunteer to teach university students on part time, if no one would be more interested in what certificates they have!
Dr Amirize is a retired lecturer in the Rivers State
University, Port Harcourt.

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