Educational institutions all over the globe are known as a platform basically used directly or indirectly to influence the total life of an individual.
The government, through the schools, plans and guides learning experiences and promotes individuals’ continuous growth through a systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experience.
As a dynamic and functional element, knowledge needs to be continuously reconstructed, especially as dictated by the changing times. In various spheres of life, stakeholders always opt for the instrument of educational platform to address issues that border on the public’s orientation and mindset.
Harry Smorenberg, founder and Chairman of the World’s Pension Summit, who also doubles as the Chairman of the Editorial Advisory Board of Banking and Finance in Europe, said teaching financial literacy as a subject in schools has helped other countries to widen access to financial products and services.
Considering Financial Literacy as an important adjunct for promoting financial inclusion, consumer protection and financial stability, he advised Nigeria to teach financial literacy in schools. His reasons are supposedly to enable students have a better “understanding of financial planning, the importance of preparing household budget, cash-flow management and asset allocation to meet financial goals.”
Smorenberg is not alone in his thought. Tanner and Tanner (1980) in their Curriculum Development: “Theory into Practice” also recognised the role of the school in the systematic construction of knowledge and experience unlike the role played by other agencies.
Going by the usefulness of the educational institutions to the society, there is every need for Nigerian leaders to ramp up efforts aimed at driving agricultural literacy, especially at the base levels if the country is sincerely interested in the development of agriculture for the good of its economy.
Agricultural literacy is a phrase used to describe programmes to promote the understanding and knowledge necessary to synthesise, analyse and communicate basic information about agriculture with students, producers, consumers and the public at large.
Such programmes focus on assisting educators and others to effectively incorporate information about agriculture into subjects being taught or examined in public and private fora in order to better understand the impact of agriculture on society.
However, my interest is in tackling agricultural literacy from the classroom where the learner would be exposed to the knowledge and understanding of not just the concept of health and environment, but their history, current economic and social significance to the people of Nigeria.
It is expected that the knowledge of food and fibre production, processing and domesticating as well as international marketing, through the instrument of the school, will eventually produce informed citizens of Nigeria who will be instrumental to the formulation and implementation of policies that would support competitive agro-business ventures.
The youth with knowledge and understanding of food and fibre system would naturally be able to synthesize, analyse and communicate basic information about agriculture such as the production of plants and animal products, its processing, the economic impact of agriculture, its societal significance, the marketing/distribution of agricultural products etc.
Making agricultural literacy mandatory from primary educational level through secondary education, irrespective of choice of course of study, no doubt, will have significant impact in the restoration and development of Nigeria’s ailing economy. This is why Gbamanja (2000) noted that the school curriculum planner in selecting contents should survey and interprete the nature of the society – its basic stable values and the areas in which it is changing to.
Gbamanja views the school as a miniature society, thus what the school teaches depends a lot on the needs and aspirations of the society.
Nigeria at the moment, is talking, preaching and dreaming agriculture, while individuals are encouraged to avail themselves of the opportunity provided by the prevailing economic meltdown in the country to launch into agriculture.
I am of the opinion that all the talks about reverting to agriculture as the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy would amount to naught if no concrete effort is made to have every child that passes through primary and secondary education in Nigeria, know about agriculture.
Nigeria’s recovery from the impact of the fall of price of crude oil that had for decades, boosted its foreign reserve, will definitely not be sudden. It will really call for an orderly arrangement of series of courses and supporting activities designed to help young Nigerians rediscover themselves.
Our Leaders And Darwin’s Doctrine
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82), English biologist, author of The Origin Of Species and an apostle of the theory of organic evolution by natural selection, was also a Thought Management Therapist. Not many people placed much value on his Doctrine on mental hygiene as everybody did on his theory of evolution. Hear him: “The highest possible stage in moral culture is when we recognise that we ought to control our thoughts”.
Mental hygiene or the management of thinking process is one area where Nigerians require some orientation and education. It may not be known to everybody that we can build or destroy ourselves by our thinking and mindset. Truly, the key to every man is his thought. Some Nigerians have this habit of talking carelessly which often depicts the mindset of the average Nigerian.
Some people toy with the illusion that thought is free and that they can get away with the consequences arising from what they think and say. There is, indeed, a world of thought forms whose energy and pressures represent various categories of the thoughts, emotions, utterances and mindset of human beings. They coalesce and form into magnetic centres of energy according to the nature of their contents.
Thus, several centres of thought energy, however around human environment, capable of making contacts with people whose thinking and striving are similar to the nature and contents of the various centres of thought forms. We pollute and degrade our psychic environment through the generation of sordid and nasty thoughts and emotions which contribute towards the worsening behaviours and activities of many people.
Darwin’s Doctrine is an explanation of the links and interactive process between visible human environment and a non-visible one that harbours all thoughts which humans generate daily. The Doctrine emphasizes the fact that human beings possess a far-reaching ability in the power of thought, because human volition creates energies that have independent existence. Such artificially created energy or thought centres influence, affect and infect humans in various ways.
This invisible world of thought-forms continues to grow and expand, with every human being contributing his or her own bit to sustain the various kinds. Humans are surrounded and affected by various electro-magnetic radiations and energies, including the artificially created thought centres. There are few positive ones which people have opportunity of mobilizing and using, to carry out works of grace.
However, human environment has been so polluted and degraded that unpleasant energy centres predominate. There are choking and deadly psychic pollutants whose influences are responsible for increasing acts of irresponsibility.
Therefore, while we are talking about clean physical environment and making legislations for the preservation of a healthy ecology, let us give some thought and attention to Darwin’s Doctrine on this matter. It is a doctrine of a sound mental hygiene and the cultivation of a positive attitude or frame of mind. Is it not obvious that what manifests physically is usually the result or by-product of a psychological process? Thoughts may be private, personal and non-visible, but their effects soon become public and visible in the behaviours of the masses.
The consequences of what we think and plan privately manifest sooner or later in the forms of what we say, do or experience. Degrading pollutants in our environment consist of thoughts of bitterness, greed, lust, envy, tension and other nasty emotions. Hardly can any law be made to regulate the thinking of individuals but everyone has a responsibility to control his thoughts, which would reflect in deeds and utterances.
Through the nature of the thoughts and ideas that we cultivate and harbor, we also attract similar thoughts and ideas, thereby building or destroying ourselves. We do much harm to ourselves and others when we engage in thoughts and ideas of evil nature. When a particular kind of mindset or aspiration predominates in a country this can determine the collective orientation of the people. The consequences come as shared experiences.
It was considered needful to bring up Darwin’s Doctrine which can also be called “Thought Management Therapy”, because of some recent utterances of Nigerian politicians. Being role models in the society, the political class should recognise the wide social impact of what they say and do, even in privacy. Nigerian masses are quite poor and hungry, living in squalid hovels.
For a former state governor and now a Chief Whip of the Senate, used to living in affluence, to lament about “Senators’ pay packet” is quite insensitive to the plight of the masses. How would a Nigerian civil servant begging for N30,000 monthly wage feel to hear that “when I was governor, the state was buying my food; the state paid everything, but as a senator, nobody does that”? With N13.5 million as running cost each month and N200 million as constituency allowance for each senator, why must a monthly pay of N750,000 be an issue of lamentation?
Nigerian politicians are advised to acquaint themselves with Charles Darwin’s Doctrine and what lesson it contains. Nigeria cannot be different from what its leaders, senators and the elite harbour as regular thoughts and aspirations.
Dr Amirize is a retired lecturer at the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt..
Social Media Regulation And Free Speech
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) which was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948, and adopted as the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 1981 is a milestone document in the history of human rights.
Accordingly, Nigeria as a member-nation domesticated it as Chapter 4 of the 1999 Constitution, Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended). Amongst them is the right to freedom of expressions and the press enshrined in Section 39 of the Constitution.
Section 39(1) provides, “Every person shall be entitled to freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference”. Subsection 2 expansively provides, “Without prejudice to the generality of Subsection (1) of this section, every person shall be entitled to own, establish and operate any medium for the dissemination of information, ideas and opinions”.
On the other hand, the Criminal Code (Laws of the Federation – 1990) criminalized provoking breach of peace by offensive publication in Part 2. Section 88A (1)(b) provides, “Any person who publishes or circulates publications either in the form of newspapers, or leaflets, periodicals, pamphlets or posters, if such publications are likely to provoke or bring into disaffection any section of the country shall be guilty of an offence…” Similarly in subsection (1)(c).
Emphatically, the Criminal Code includes sedition as an offence under the law. Section 51(1) provides, “Any person who – (b) utters any seditious words; (c) prints, publishes, sells, offers for sale, distribute or reproduce any seditious publication; shall be guilty of an offence ….., and any seditious publication shall be forfeited to the State”.
By the way, what is sedition? It simply means organized or deliberate incitement of rebellion or civil disorder against authority or the state, usually by speech or writing.
In R v Sullivan (1961) US 254, the word ‘sedition’ was described as, “a comprehensive term which embraces all practices, whether by word, deed or writing, which are calculated to disturb the tranquility of the State”. And in IGP v Anagbogu (1954) 21 NLR 26, it was held that the act of writing an article with a seditious intention is tantamount to the offence of sedition.
Now, the crux of the matter is whether the right to freedom of expression and press is an absolute or qualified right? Under permissible circumstances such as is necessarily expedient for public order and security, arguably, freedom of expression and the press cannot be absolute rights instead must be exercised with restraint subject to law.
Article 29 (2) of the UDHR 1948 provides, “In the exercise of these rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic society”.
Synchronically, Section 45 (1) of the 1999 CFRN provides, “Nothing in sections 37, 38, 39, 40, and 41 of this Constitution shall invalidate any law that is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society (a) in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or (b) for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedom of other persons”.
In the civil jurisprudence, the freedom of expressions and the press, interestingly, are constrained by libel and slander. Logically, freedom of speech is not an unconditional right.
The right to life, for example, can be encumbered by judicial death sentence; right to free movement can be hindered by lawful arrests and jail terms, and the right to own movable property cannot be exercised by theft or stealing. Ditto on others. In other words, human rights are fundamental but not absolute rights.
Suffice it to say that putting restraints on social media activities through regulations cannot fairly lead to brouhahas. Events, in recent times, have shown that such intervention is indispensable, and without regulations, social media will do more harm than good to the society in no distant time.
Overtime, sensitive information, including falsified national reports and private issues, had been disseminated only for people to subsequently discover they were fake news. This is condemnable.
If the established media industry; audio, visual and print-media outlets with trained journalists are regulated, why should there be uproars on regulations on social media with unskilled operators? Likewise, SIM cards must be compulsorily registered and intermittently updated to assist in the onerous battle.
Any society where people can freely fabricate falsehoods, including invasive information and disseminate to the public, is in decay and, therefore, must not be encouraged to stay. Nonetheless, citizens have unparalleled rights to fairly criticize their leaders and governments on policies at any time.
Instructively, the quality of criticisms determine if oppositions are actually in existence. There is a wide difference between criticisms and incitingly feeding the people with falsehoods. No doubt, civilization opened up the world of innovations but mustn’t be subjected to extreme abuse, otherwise, it will tear the nation in pieces.
In sum, a situation where disgruntled elements would fabricate fake stories or videos to mislead the public is dangerous. It’s a threat to national security, and sensibly, cannot be permissible under the guise of exercising right to free speech and press.
Umegboro, a public affairs analyst, wrote in from Abuja.
Nigerian Ports Need Rehab
Not a few can relate with the recent outburst of Rivers State Governor, Chief Nyesom Wike, over the lack of federal projects and the pitiable condition of seaports in the state.
Speaking during the maiden delivery of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) to downstream investor, Stockgap, by the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Bonny, Tuesday, he reportedly asked why the state should undertake the dredging of Bonny channels while the Federal Government collects all the revenues and levies from marine operators, lamenting that “you (FG) are building a new port in Lagos, but those in Rivers you rendered idle, grounded with no development attention.”
Wike no doubt spoke the mind of many Nigerians who constantly wonder why many seaports in the country have been allowed to die. From Calabar, Port Harcourt, Warri to Burutu the story is the same – collapsed infrastructure, unutilized ports. The resultant effect is little or no economic activities in the once busy areas that were sources of income for many. Many people who had business ventures around these ports have long closed shops as nothing was happening there.
One can recall the immediate past Governor of Lagos State, Akinwunmi Amode, at the twilight of his administration, appealing to the Federal Government to ensure that seaports in other parts of the country become functional as a way of decongesting Apapa Ports. He argued that besides helping government to save funds spent on managing the traffic and regular repair of roads damaged by articulated vehicles, this will end the gridlock caused by trucks and trailers on the Apapa-Oshodi route. Similarly, while leading a delegation of members of his kingdom to Abuja for a meeting with President Muhammadu Buhari, recently the Olu of Warri, His Majesty, Ogiame Ikenwole, appealed to the federal government to hasten action on the rehabilitation of Warri and Koko ports in Delta State so as to minimize the incidence of restiveness and also rejuvenate economic activities in the area. He decried the deplorable state of the ports which he said had been abandoned by the government, noting that the ports were very good and solid ports left unused.
With the death of these ports, millions of Nigerians are left with only Apapa and Tin Can ports in Lagos State for their port related businesses. We all know the daunting problems associated with these ports said to be currently handling about 80 percent of all shipping traffic in the country. These ever busy ports are reputed for congestion which seems they have defied all solutions. Almost daily, heavy duty trailers and other vehicles are stuck on the highway for several hours, thereby impeding free flow of traffic. The deplorable state of the roads does not help the situation at all. Recently, I was in a group going to Badagry for a conference. On getting to Oshodi/Apapa Road, we met a traffic jam that kept us on the road for almost ten hours. A sick man in an ambulance on emergency was reported to have died in the traffic not too long ago. Other road users, motorists and people who leave and do business in the ports axis have similar ugly stories to tell. These and other unfavorable conditions, some believe, have forced many importers and exporters to abandon Lagos ports for Cotonou in Benin Republic. Nigeria, therefore, losing billions in revenue while Benin Republic gains from our loss.
In view of all these embarrassing challenges, it is difficult to phantom why the government has not considered rejuvenation of other existing ports and probably opening up new ones as a permanent solution to the problem. Why can’t Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri and other seaports in the Niger Delta be made functional so as to reduce the pressure on Lagos ports and also help the economy of these areas to grow? Is it too much to make these ports functional and mop up a lot of idle youths from the streets and thereby minimize restiveness in the area as the Warri monarch suggested? If these ports are not so deep to accommodate big ships, why not dredge them, divert ships to them, reduce congestion in Lagos and stimulate the economy of these cities and the country in general?
You know it’s so worrisome that, oftentimes, our leaders and policy makers know the right things to do to move the nation forward but they will fail to do them due to some selfish, ethnic and greedy politics. Who among our leaders, both past and present, does not know that it is most unreasonable concentrating all imports and exports in one port and in one part of the country? What have they done about it? Sometime ago, we were told of plans to dredge waterways and reinforce riverbanks to increase the capacity of inland waterways in places like Onitsha and others. What has happened to such lofty plans? The fact still remains that we cannot continue to do things wrongly and expect a better result. We cannot continue to concentrate all imports in Lagos and expect less congestion and free roads. How can the roads be free as both the Federal and Lagos State Governments had severally “ordered”, if people from all parts of the country continue to throng to Apapa port to clear their goods?
It’s high time the right thing was done. Make the idle ports in the Niger Delta fully functional and save the situation. I once read about Ibaka deep sea port in Akwa Ibom State. This seaport if approved and completed it is said, can receive super-heavy vessels. It requires no dredging as it opens straight into the ocean and could double as Navy and commercial hub. Why can’t government consider the approval and opening of this and other ports in the South South and South East and save importers in these areas the trouble of constantly travelling to Lagos to transact their businesses?
With the proper will and drive this can be achieved and that will definitely benefit the nation more.
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