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Panacea To Niger Delta’s Nightmare



Book Review

Title: Step-by-Step Strategic Re-orientation, Reformation and Rehabilitation of Cultists, Militants and Restive Youth

Author: Albert K. Horsfall

Reviewer: Boye Salau

Volume: 95 Pages

Since the discovery of oil in Oloibiri, Bayelsa State in the 1960s, the Niger Delta region has been a key player in the economic development of Nigeria. Ironically, the positive impacts of this oil resources to Nigeria have neither earned the Niger Delta the desired political justice and recognition, nor brought about the much expected socio­economic development to the region. This political injustice and economic deprivation which the citizenry suffer in the face of environmental degradation has therefore led to a long-drawn agitation in the Niger Delta.

Although, political agitation in the Niger Delta could be traced to 1934 when some Niger Deltans, mostly Ijaw elites in Lagos demanded a State for the Rivers people, it was not until 1966 when Isaac Adaka Boro led a band of youngmen to declare a Niger Delta Republic that agitation through armed struggle started. Since then, armed struggle has been a major tool of demanding for political sovereignty and economic justice in the Niger Delta.

At least, three of these armed struggles which claimed hundreds of lives stand tall: The Gideon Orkar’s abortive coup of 1990, the late Ken Saro-Wiwa’s Ogoni rights struggle in 1994 and the 1999 Odi Massacre in Bayelsa State which was preceeded by the 1998 Kaima Declaration.

Today, these agitations which could be said to be anchored on social justice have assumed a more deadly, criminal dimension. Some criminal elements, aided by some corrupt politicians and anti-social groups, have taken the advantage of the violent milieu in the region to cash in and satisfy their selfish, criminal interest. This has made many Nigerians and the international community to dub the Niger Delta a crisis-ridden zone where militancy, youth restiveness and other acts of lawlessness have become the order of the day.

Those who share this  opinion have strong indicators to support their arguments. Within the last 10 years alone, several cases of acts of militancy and youth restiveness have been recorded in the region. Worst, all the measures, mostly half-measured and cosmetic, taken by the Federal Government, including military actions, to tackle this monster have yielded no positive result.

Given the failure of all  these measures to nip in the bud the acts of insurgency in the Niger Delta, the questions now  are: What is the lasting solution to the Niger Delta problems? Or should the Niger Delta continue to exist under the ambush of extraneous, criminal  elements? These are some of the questions Albert K.  Horsfall’s Step-by-Step- Strategic Re-orientation, Reformation            and Rehabilitation of Cultists, Militants and Restive Youth tries to proffer answers to.

Considering     Chief Horsfall’s profile and experience as a lawyer, security expert, administrator and elder statesman, one can conclude that he stands a better position to proffer lasting panacea to the long­drawn violent conflicts and crises in the Niger Delta. And in fairness to his approach, Horsfall does  not deal with the issue at stake in the realm of theories. He leads in a practical way. He metamorphoses what happens around him, his experience and efforts as a former Presidential Adviser on Niger Delta and chairman of the Rivers State Social Rehabilitation committee, to plausible literary text.

Horsfall’s book traces the historical path that led to the nightmare the Niger Delta people are experiencing today to the region’s long standing agitation for political and economic autonomy, poor and bad political leadership with its attendant problem of high rate of unemployment, general lack of social and economic opportunities in the region, socio- infrastructural paralysis and environmental degradation. 1t also blames the problem on the docility and unnecessary cowardliness of the Niger Delta populace in the face of injustice, as well as on poor and bad upbringing of children in the region which, according to the author, plunge many of the youths into cultism, militancy and other social vices.

Horsfall highlights how the Niger Delta nationalism struggle was hijacked by those he described as “extraneous, self-seeking elements such as cultists and thugs supported by politicians and anti-social groups” to further their own selfish net. He writes: “Many of them latched on to the central purpose of Niger Delta nationalism and used it to further their selfish interest”.

One can not but agree with Horsfall’s position that the option of garrisoning the Niger Delta or keeping it under heavy military surveillance and attack can not provide lasting solution to the problem of cultism, militancy and youth restiveness in the region; just as the option of leaving the matter in the hands of ill-equipped law enforcement agencies is inadequate to confront such challenges.

Horsfall’s clear-cut solutions to the long-drawn-out-state of violence, cultism, militancy, political unrest, youth restiveness and other forms of unrest in the Niger Delta should rather serve as a wake-up call to Nigerian leaders.

Besides canvassing for the creation of two or three additional States in the Niger Delta, as well as  a clear-cut policy that would give the security and defence services proper directives as to the policy of the Federal Government on the Niger Delta crises, Horsfall suggests that the political agitations of the Niger Delta, stretching way back to 1934, and especially since the Adaka Boro revolt of 1966, must be carefully addressed without any further equivocation or political sophistry.

One of the ways to address this is for the Federal Government to adopt Chief Horsfall’s  “step-by step strategic re-orientation, reformation and rehabilitation of cultists, militants and restive youth” blueprint which he had initiated through the Social Rehabilitation Committee set up by the Rivers State Government to nip in the bud the problem of cultism, militancy and insurgency in Rivers State.

On the economic front however, Hosfall’s recommendation of a step-by-step increase in revenue allocations to the South South region might be considered justifiable given the place of the region as the goose that lays the golden eggs. But considering poor and bad leadership and the high level of corruption in our society, can the increase in revenue allocation be transformed into considerable better living standard for the Niger Delta populace?

Meanwhile, one lesson to be drawn from Horsfall’s book, especially from some of the measures he identifies as necessary for the reformation and rehabilitation of the restive youths in the Niger Delta is that no one is an everlasting never-do-well because change is the only constant thing in life.

And unlike many authors whose target audience is limited, the audience of Horsfall’s Step-by-Step Strategic Re-orientation Reformation and Rehabilitation of cultists, Militants and Restive Youth cuts across all ages and genders, and all the political and socio-economic strata of life. It is not only for the youths, but also for adults – the led and the political leaders in Nigeria.

The 95-page book also achieves a milestone with regards to diction and simplicity, especially the use of simple words that would appeal to a large repertoire of audience. It should therefore come in handy for all and sundry.


Boye Salau

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Last Laugh




Title:                 Beyond Expectations

Author:             Reward Akwu

Publisher:          Ollybell Printing Resources, Port Harcourt

Pages:             136

Reviewer:         Boye Salau


Whatever instigated Reward Akwu to engage in literary prose writing cannot, with the extreme form of clarity, be dismissed as inconsequential. Like every other journalists, Akwu is one man whose profession and the hurricane of economic survival in Nigeria would hardly permit to venture into a literary expedition.

What then is the driving force? Could it be his personal childhood experience, or the chequered experience of someone dear to him? Certainly, it could not have been his own memorabilia. The author of Beyond Expectation is still one of millions of Nigerians yearning for better life. Otherwise, he would not have remained in the hollow of the Rivers State Newspaper Corporation as a Chief Correspondent till now.

Whatever the reasons are, one is not in doubt that the various chequered experiences of life’s discomfiting paradoxes are the afflatus that make the zephr of history a reality.

In a country where many people are not sure of the next meal, Beyond Expectations clearly captures the reality of hailing from poor background.

The book is somewhat nostalgic about the fate of an average Nigerian man in the village and relieves the heart of the common man with the age long cliché: when there is life, there is hope.

The theme of the book can be located in the fortune of many people who rose from the creek and bottomless pit of life to stardom. The Abiolas, Jonathans, Amaechis fall in this category.

Written in simple narrative form with sublime simplicity, devoid of nebulous words and oratorical fancy, the 136 page novel thematises the pains and hopelessness of a brilliant secondary school boy whose intoxicating puissance and gluttonous appetite for sexual love with his classmate and child of an unforgiving gladiator with huge lubris, became his albatross. It is equivalent of the story of Adam who was sent out of the Garden of Eden for his inability to resist the apple in Eve.

How Chinedu came out of his quandary is what readers of Beyond Expectations should find out themselves.

As expected of a book that has its anthropology in local setting, communal love, family and filial affection are persuasive in this literary enterprise. The author proves that in a society where family bond is in short supply and where the only thing the rich harbours for the poor is hatred, the milk of kindness still flows in some peoples’ vein.

At the same time, the book inveighs the age – long conundrum of ersatz social class and unintentionally illustrates the yawning hiatus that exists between the Teflon rulers and the hoipolloi.

Akwu’s good understanding of the village life and his ability to capture the life and time of the ordinary people in graphic details further enriches the delivery of the book. Though sometimes too elaborate in details, the author succeeds in sending his message to the readers by employing simple diction and local parlance where necessary.

Unlike many books that are often built on hyperbole and far-fetched imagery, Beyond Expectations is convincingly obsessed with imageries that are deeply affecting and the realities of life that are both alluring and perplexing. By my assessment, the book is a fascinating nugget that addresses itself to all classes, age and gender.

Very well as the author tries to make the book flow from page to page, the book could not resist the temptation of unnecessary details, repetition and avoidable typographical errors.

Again, the book is most deficient, or better still not sufficient in suspense. A better application of literary suspense with regards to what befall Chinedu at last would have made the book more intriguing and interesting.

These few ‘slips of the pen’ can, however, be excused being Reward’s first literary expedition in the world of literature.

Without obsessive sense of sheer criticism, Beyond Expectations lives up to its name. It is sufficient for what it is meant to achieve, namely to fortify the forlorn hope, to encourage the poor not to be deterred by their poor background, while at the same time reminding the rich that no condition is permanent in life.

And until one reads the book from page to page, and from chapter to chapter, one may not be able to appreciate well the intrigue and metaphor of this heart-throbbing reality woven as fiction.


Boye Salau

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The Uncommon Truth




Contrary to what you think or what you have been told, you are wiser, better and smarter than what you think you are. You are more powerful than you may ever imagine. Inside you dwells the very power, wisdom or intelligence that controls this very world. Thus, the answer to all your problems and challenges is, and always will be within you. It’s in you! In reality, you can never be helpless in this world, and the reason is very simple: “The help is in you,  the only true and lasting help.”

We live in a world where people offer us advice, even before we ask for it. There is nothing wrong with that, but the only problem is that most people are failures, and without direction.  They are still trying to figure out how to get their own lives together.  How can they tell you how to fish when  they don’t even know the path to the river? What does that tell you? Be careful whose advice you act upon. The good news, though, is that all the wisdom and direction you need in life is within you. Success, greatness, wealth and happiness are not found outside you, they are resident in you. The day you become conscious of that truth will mark the beginning of your freedom, for then you will be free from the manipulation of others. Therefore, I wish that you may come to that point in your life where you know beyond doubt that your wealth and riches are not in the hands of any person, company or organisation, but in you. When that consciousness is established in you, then shall you come to terms with this powerful truth: “There is no future in any job, the future is in you; there is no future in any country,  the future lies in you”  That which you seek “without,” can only be found “within.”

The only secret capable of freeing you from the manipulation of others, and the frustration caused by adverse circumstances lies within you.

You were created to be self-reliant, and to decide your own destiny. Embrace that truth. Never let anyone control or manipulate your destiny. You must believe in yourself, trust yourself, think for yourself and act for yourself. Remember, no one can ever let you down or frustrate you if you are not leaning on them. No one can control your life selfishly if you are not seeking for their approval, and you are not intimidated by their disapproval. And no one can hurt your feeling, make you feel angry or disappointed if you are not depending on them for your help, success and satisfaction.

Self-reliance is a necessity should you desire to live a happy and successful life. But self-reliance is only possible when you become conscious of the fact that everything you need for your success and happiness is within you.

Nwibeke, an inspirational writer lives in Port Harcourt.


ThankGod Nwibeke

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Title:                TRAILING NEW TRACKS,

Author:                        JULIET MINIMAH, PORT HARCOURT:

Publisher:        HELPMATE CONSULT LIMITED, 2011.

No of Pages    48pp



Writing in The Da Vinci Code, Dan Brown stated that “men. go to far greater lengths to avoid what they fear than to obtain what they deserve”. Probably driven by similar opinion, Juliet Minimah has confronted the age-long limitations that generations of potentially great men and women have placed on themselves dying unsung with loads of untapped mental, physical and even spiritual resources. Lots of work has been done in books, journals, documentaries, public lectures, seminars, media events, movies, music, etc to motivate people to achieve by giving expression to their God-given talents and abilities. Yet far too little success has been recorded as many still pine away with inconceivable endowments.

Trailing New Tracks is a motivational piece of work aimed at reawakening millions of people world-wide, who have lost the confidence in brining their natural endowments to fruition. It is a call to action in which the author challenges everyone in this situation to “break new grounds, chart new frontiers and see yourself as a trail blazer”. Juliet Minimah sees this as one certain way to address “the various social, economic and political ills that confront the world today”.


In Trailing New Tracks, the author explores the theme of Regeneration and Attainment Through Conscious Effort. She sees hope in a world hampered by crises of all kinds, shapes and magnitudes. She attempts to re-engineer attitude through uprightness, conscious effort and the exercise of self-will. In her views, “the adversities of life teach us more lessons than the prosperities of life”.


Minimah attempts, in this work, to communicate with her audience through an elevated art form. The sub genre of philosophy is by no means the easiest way to communicate any message. Credit must be given to this author for her boldness, audacity and fearlessness.


The author employs simple, persuasive and concise language to motivate with ease. She uses the first-person point of view to break down barriers between her and her audience. Mention  must be made of the rich use of biblical allusion.


Minimah obviously writes to a youthful audience but recommends (in chapter 7) the same sense of activity and attainment to every age. Also, she writes to a universal audience.


Trailing New Tracks is a motivational piece of art written in a forty-eight page volume in which the author attempts to inspire action towards achievement in a world where confidence and determination are almost completely eroded. The work may be divided into three main parts.

Chapters 1 to 5 persuade the reader to develop a good mind-set devoid of greed and selfishness. The fifth chapter attempts to inspire confidence.

The next two chapters inspire the reader to dream big and be visionary. They emphasize the importance of good company in the realization of good dreams and visions.

In the last twelve chapters, the author canvasses action through uprightness and focus. She warns against the evil of procrastination and fear. She urges the reader to set a pattern for himself and society, take advantage of opportunities as they present themselves and get some extra knowledge and information. She charges the reader to rise above limitations, find hope and the will to achieve and be a problem-solver, a Trail Blazer.

Like every other work of art, there are a few weaknesses which this reviewer must not fail to point out in this work. For space and time, we shall take just three of them.

For a philosophical work, Trailing New Tracks is rather too small in volume and lacks the depth to stand shoulder-to-shoulder with other philosophical works in world -class libraries in Nigeria and universally.

It is the view of this reviewer that the author should have localized her audience and injected aspects of our cultural, social and philosophical ethos which would have made this work more relevant to the African, or indeed, Nigerian reader.

This reviewer also identifies a few grammatical and semantic inconsistencies which could be attributed to the now-popular (printer’s devil.” Particularly, the expression: “Trail New Blaze” (in the introduction) should actually read “Blaze New Trail(s)” (brackets mine) as obtained in the first paragraph of chapter 18.


Juliet Minimah’s Trailing New Tracks is without doubt a great attempt by a young African woman at reaching out to young people and even the older ones to dig deep into their mind and realize the potential hidden there. She challenges them using achievers like Barrack Obama of the United States of America, the first black president of the world’s most powerful nation, and even our own Pat Utomi, who became Presidential Adviser at twenty -seven years of age, to inspire this and other generations to rise to their talents and make new and amazing contributions to their society.

To the extent that Minimah has effectively communicated to her audience, inspiring every reader, irrespective of age and class, I consider Trailing New Tracks as a monumental success and recommend it as a must-read for everyone who aspires for unparalleled greatness.





No of Pages    46pp






May I inform the esteem audience here today, that I am here to appraise the monumental work done by Miss Minimah Ishmeal Juliet, titled “Ordeals of A baby Mother”.

As we all are aware and I know that Minimah Ishmeal Juliet hails from the Ancient City of Opobo in Opobo/Nkoro Local Government Area of Rivers State. Born in the family of Mr. & Mrs. Ishmeal Minimah. Being the first and only female daughter of six children of the parents, graduated from the University of Port Harcourt with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Political and Administrative Studies.

As a template to all her growing contemporaries of  the  female folk in Nigeria, Minimah Juliet, had additional colour on her academic pursuit by possessing a Diploma in law from the Rivers State College of Arts and Science and a proficiency certificate in management from the Nigerian Institute of Management.

Miss Minimah Juliet seem little but mighty and mature intellectually in the field of academic spectrum.

In her book, “Ordeals of a Baby Mother” chapters I to 5 deals with convincing themes, which delved into “Who is a baby mother, Is motherhood a curse, why rejection and ageing forcefully rather than gracefully”, serves as an eye opener which creates awareness needed by mothers and baby mothers across the country over motherhood.

Similarly, chapter six to the last, deals with implications of early motherhood, More advantages for unequal opportunities, Refuse to be a school dropout, Being a baby mother turns you into one true life stories and a word of note, serves to show positive measures a baby mother should take to avoid being victim of the circumstance.


Minimah Ishmeal Juliet was very careful in choosing her words to convey the intended action in the book which all levels of individuals can understand easily to read.

The sequence of the chapters flows naturally to the sense of would-be readers of the book. This has demonstrated maturity of articulation of words by the author.

However, we must expect as a matter of fact that the production of this book may experience minor errors, which she accept entirely all the faults to herself but form the basis for her further encouragement to produce the best in her life.

Lastly, in my opinion, the book, “ORDEALS OF A BABY MOTHER” has served the purpose for what it was addressed.

I strongly recommend the book to all ages of womanhood to read,  especially students in secondary schools and higher institutions across the country.

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