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BOOK REVIEW How To Make Nigeria Peaceful, Friendly

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Book Title: Nigeria :The Case For Peaceful And Friendly

Dissolution Author: Adedapo  Adeniran

Reviewer: Anote Ajeluorou

 

Nigeria has variously been dubbed a contradiction, a geographical expression lacking the status of a nation; a country lacking in clear direction, whose leaders demonstrate abysmally unpatriotic spirit as they fail to define a path to greatness for the country.

Those who make these arguments have strong indicators to corroborate their point. Corruption, ethnic affiliations that have entrenched such obnoxious and mediocre formulas as “quota system, geographical spread, disadvantaged areas, cut-off mark, catchment area, political thuggery, the Niger Delta question,” and the like do not make serious argument for a country ready to embrace oneness.

The questions always arise: What direction should Nigeria go? Is it the way of peaceful co-existence, where the principles of federalism are practised to the letter or a simple and peaceful dissolution into ethnic nation states? For how long will the state continue to totter on shaky legs because those who lead continue to pay lip service to the country’s oneness while actually doing things that otherwise continue to undermine unity and greatness? But legal activist and writer, Adedapo Adeniran will not dwell on the realm of conjectures. He says it as he sees it in his book, Nigeria: The Case for Peaceful and Friendly Dissolution that has benefited from fourth revision. Adeniran argues categorically that Nigeria is founded on a wrong foundation as amalgam of different ethnic nation States by the British colonialists.

What is needed, according to him, is for the various ethnic nation States to go their way and exist independently of each other. It is only that way would their potentials be variously realized rather than what now exists that is totally at variance with every known aspiration that makes up nations

Adeniran traces the historical path that led Nigeria’s creation starting from the Berlin Conference of 1884, where Africa was carved out like a cake at a table for the European powers. Thirty years later in 1914, Lord Lugard amalgamated the Northern and Southern Protectorates to be known as ‘Nigeria.’ Adeniran writes, “Effectively, Lord Lugard and Lady Lugard are the bane of the Southern and Northern Nigeria. The situation is long overdue for correction”.

He further makes argument against the continuing use of the name ‘Nigeria’ after independence. Most other nations in Africa have long changed their colonial names to ones that are in consonance with the spirit of those nations. What this means in his view, is that Nigeria should have been fractionalized long before now as the unity is one founded on false premise. It is the writer’s view that by retaining the colonial name, Nigeria has not made itself open to modern ways of thinking and doing things.

He writes, “It is instructive to note that a good number of African countries christened with foreign names have so progressed in their thoughts that they no longer bear those colonialist appellations. Gold Coast became Ghana, Upper Volta became Bourkina Faso, Northern Rhodesia became Zambia, Nyasaland became Malawi; yet the self­ acclaimed ‘Giant of Africa’ – Nigeria, which should have led the way in that direction still retains that element of colonialism, when in reality it should be looking forward to fractionalisation with a view to formation of independent and sovereign nationalities in aid of patriotism and nationalism”.

The author surmises that from earliest times, there have been elements of disintegration in the union called Nigeria but which have been glossed over by opportunism from those who strongly canvassed for it initially. He blames the British for this as he insists that the North was always against the Nigerian union, and had actually threatened to pull out. Now, he insists the North has been the unintended beneficiary of a union they disdained from start.

Evidence abound to suggest that they were persuaded to stay put during the second military coup in 1966 that ushered in Yakubu Gowon as Head of State.

So, he states, “Ours is a marriage of inconvenience, of heterogeneous incompatibles resulting in abuse of power, position, avarice, disregard for human rights, lack of mutual esteem, vanity, ignorance, corruption, unfairness, lack of meritocracy, and all other unimaginable ills not arising from intellectual objectivity, tolerance and meaningful dialogue, but from empty arrogance, the barrel of the gun, ignorance and pig-headedness. Religious fundamentalism, bigotry and intolerance laced with ethnic nepotism seem to be the order of the day”.

In Nigeria: The Case for Peaceful and friendly Dissolution, Adeniran is certain Nigeria’s doomsday will yet come if the structures that continue to emphasise the artificially created country are not dismantled. The civil war of the 1970s was one such doomsday. “Inevitably, ethnic differences are natural and in bold relief; so it does not serve any useful purpose to deceive ourselves until doomsday,” he states. “One such doomsday was the Biafra war when the Ibos felt truly that they did not belong to the colonialist artificial entity of a misnomer labeled Nigeria.”

Mr. Adeniran’s book might be considered an inflammatory work considering efforts being made to heal whatever wounds that have been inflicted on different ethnic nationalities within the Nigerian union. But he certainly is worth listening to for the benefit of hindsight contained in his book, which he has bequeathed to his generation. Such hindsight should be a source for informed insight into the future and what the continuing schisms in the union may portend if things continue to decay.

The book should be seen as a wake up call for dedication from the political class that continues to operate gangster leadership style to deprive ordinary Nigerians their due. However, the section, ‘Less .we forget’ is in bad taste and makes Adeniran’s entire argument narrow and Yoruba-centric.

 

Anote Ajeluorou

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Checking Children Maltreatment

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Child maltreatment is a serious global health problem with life long consequences.
It is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18years of age by a parent, care giver or another person in a custodial role, especially in the hands of a clergy, coach and teacher, that results in harm, potential harm or threat of harm to a child.
According to a report by World Health Organisation (WHO), nearly 3 in 4 children or 300 million children aged 2 to 4 years regularly suffer physical punishment or psychological violence at the hands of parents and caregivers. Also, one in 5 women and 1 in 13 men report having been sexually abused as a child aged 0 to 17 years.
Subsequently, 120 million girls and young women under 20 years of age have suffered some form of forced sexual contact.
Some consequences of child maltreatment include impaired lifelong physical and mental health, and the social and occupational outcomes can ultimately slow a country’s economic and social development.
The report further stated that child maltreatment is often hidden and only a fraction of child victims of maltreatment ever gets support from health professionals.
“A child who is abused is more likely to abuse others as an adult so that violence is passed down from one generation to the next. It is therefore critical to break this cycle of violence, and in so doing create positive multi-generational impacts.
Preventing child maltreatment before it starts is possible and requires a multisectoral approach.
Effective prevention approaches include supporting parents and teaching positive parenting skills, and enhancing laws to prohibit violent punishment.
Ongoing care of children and families can reduce the risk of maltreatment reoccurring and can minimise its consequences, the report stated.
The report explained that child maltreatment includes all types of physical or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and commercial or other exploitation, which results in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.
In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. However, current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used.
International studies reveal that nearly 3 in 4 children aged 2-4 years regularly suffer physical punishment or psychological violence at the hands of parents and caregivers, and 1 in 5 women and 1 in 13 men report having been sexually abused as a child.
Every year, there are an estimated 40 150 homicide deaths in children under 18 years of age, some of which are likely due to child maltreatment. This number almost certainly underestimates the true extent of the problem, since a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to falls, burns, drowning and other causes.
In armed conflict and refugee settings, girls are particularly vulnerable to sexual violence, exploitation and abuse by combatants, security forces, members of their communities, aid workers and others.
These injuries include, head injuries and severe disability, in particular in young children; post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Adolescent girls may face additional health issues, including gynaecological disorders and unwanted pregnancy. Also affect cognitive and academic performance and is strongly associated with alcohol and drug abuse and smoking – key risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for maltreatment.
However,to maximize the effects of prevention and care, WHO recommends that interventions are delivered as part of a four-step public health approach: defining the problem; identifying causes and risk factors; then, designing and testing interventions aimed at minimizing the risk factors; disseminating information about the effectiveness of interventions and increasing the scale of proven effective interventions.
Meanwhile, in another research, medically reviewed recently in 2022, a medical doctor of the State University of New York Medical University, Alicia Perkarsky said that causes of child maltreatment are varied.
Abuse and neglect are often associated with physical injuries, delayed growth and development, and mental health issues. She stated that, diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and sometimes laboratory tests and diagnostic imaging. Management of the issue includes documentation and treatment of any injuries and physical and mental health conditions, mandatory reporting to appropriate government agencies, and sometimes hospitalization and/or foster care to keep the child safe.
Perkarsy stated that in 2020, 3.9 million reports of alleged child maltreatment were made to Child Protective Services (CPS) in the US involving 7.1 million children. About 2.1 million of these reports were investigated in detail, and about 618,000 maltreated children were identified . Maltreatment rates were higher among girls (8.9 per 1000 girls) than boys (7.9 per 1000 boys). The younger the child is, the higher the rate of victimization (about 29% were age 2 or younger).
Also, about two thirds of all reports to Child Protective Services were made by professionals who are mandated to report maltreatment (educators, law enforcement personnel, social services personnel, legal professionals, day care providers, medical or mental health personnel, foster care providers).
“Of substantiated cases in the US in 2020, 76.1% involved neglect (including medical neglect), 16.5% involved physical abuse, 9.4% involved sexual abuse, and 0.2% involved sex trafficking. Many children were victims of multiple types of maltreatment.
“About 1750 children died in the US of maltreatment in 2020, about half of whom were 1 year old. About 73% of these children were victims of neglect and 43% were victims of physical abuse with or without other forms of maltreatment. About 80% of perpetrators were parents acting alone or with other individuals .
“Potential perpetrators of child maltreatment are defined slightly differently in different US states, but, in general, to legally be considered abuse, actions must be done by a person responsible for the child’s welfare. Thus, parents and other relatives, people living in the child’s home who have occasional responsibility, teachers, bus drivers, counselors, and so forth may be perpetrators. People who commit violence against children who they have no connection to or responsibility for ( as in school shootings) are guilty of assault, murder, and so forth but legally are not committing child abuse”,she stated.
Here, in Nigeria, in a recent study by a researcher, Chiluba Edo of the Golden Gate University, School of Law noted that, child abuse and neglect is prevalent in the everyday life of a child but it receives little or no attention by the society. This is as a result of the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. The study observed that another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet, there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect a child. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified and have been considered the outcome of abnormal interactions between the child, parents/guardians and society. These, the study noted include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders. Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is also need for greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers.

By: Ibinabo Ogolo

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‘Why Adventurous Children Have Better Mental Health’

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A new research has observed that children who spend more time playing adventurously have lower symptoms of anxiety and depression and were happier over the first COVID-19 lockdown.
The study led by researchers in the University of Exeter and published in Child Psychiatry and Human Development in 2022 , comes at a time when today’s children have fewer opportunities for adventurous play out of sight of adults, such as climbing trees, riding bikes, jumping from high surfaces or playing somewhere they are out of adult sight. The study sought to test theories that adventurous play offers learning opportunities that help build resilience in children, thereby helping to prevent mental health problems.
The research team which was made up of Helen  Dodd, Rachel Nesbit and Lily FitzGibbon  surveyed nearly 2,500 parents of children aged 5-11 years. Parents completed questions  about their child’s play, their general mental health (pre COVID) and their mood during the first COVID -19.
The result was that, children who spend more time playing outside had fewer ‘’internalising problems ‘’, characterised as anxiety and depression. Those children were also more positive during the first lockdown.
The study also found out that the effect was more pronounced in children from lower income families than those growing up in higher income households.
Professor of Child Psychology at the University of Exeter, Helen Dodd, who led the study noted that, ‘’we are more concerned than ever about children’s mental health by ensuring they have plentiful opportunities for adventurous play. This is really positive because play is free, instinctive and rewarding for children, available for everyone and doesn’t require special skills. We now urgently need to invest in and protect natural space, well – designed parks and adventurous play grounds to support the mental health of our children,’’ she explained.
Also, Director of United Kingdom Impact At Save The Children, Dan Paskins, stated that “every child needs and deserves opportunities to play. This important research shows that this is even more vital to help children thrive after all they missed out on during the COVID -19 restrictions. More play means more happiness and less anxiety and depression.’’
Welcoming the findings, Chief Executive of Play Board  NI, Jacqueline O’Loughin, said,’’this research emphasises the importance of adventurous play.
Children and young people need freedom and opportunities to encounter challenge and risk in their everyday playful adventures. It is clear from the research findings that playing,taking risks and experiencing excitement outdoors make a positive contribution to children ‘s mental health and emotional well being. The reward of allowing children to self – regulate and manage challenge in their play are widespread and far- reaching.
Adventurous play helps children to build the resilience needed to cope with and manage stress in challenging circumstances,’’ she added.
Also, in a statement by United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), on how  play strengthens children’s mental  health, the body noted that, ‘’playful moments are essential in our little one’s emotional well being. Play is how young children learn and make sense of the  world around them. While they are having fun, they are working on critical parts of their development like building motor,cognitive,social and emotional skills. The power of play extends beyond early learning,it also plays a key role in building children’s mental health and parents too. Children who play regularly with their parents are less likely to develop anxiety, depression, aggression  and sleep problems,’’it stated.

By: Ibinabo Ogolo with Agency Report

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‘If I Become Leader Of Nigeria …’ 

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As a future leader of Nigeria,there are many things I can do to develop my country . There is a saying which says,”Before you can solve a problem,you have to first identify the problem “. So, there are numerous things I can do for the country to close the lengthened gaps in other to bring in advancement and development like in other countries.
The things I can do by God’s grace, will include ensuring that the lives and property of citizens are well secured and safe,therefore making sure that military,paramilitary personnel are well trained and for the job.
I will also make sure that our educational system is properly modernised and I will ensure that education is not expensive for the masses,making at least 95 percent of the people in the country to be educated.
Also, I would bring about economic stability and never give room for economic recession but improve the value of our currency (Naira). Monopoly of the economy will be removed by having both agriculture and crude oil in view.
I will also make sure that we have a stable and convenient political environment, ensuring that democracy is well practised in the nation, thereby eroding corruption and corruptionists during elections.
Another area, I will work on is transportation,to be safe for citizens,especially those that are trading (buying and selling ).
Other predominant things I will do is to ensure peaceful co- existence among people.  Everyone should be treated equally, whether rich or poor, there should be no room for injustice. Employment for youths and young adults should be key so that they can have a means of survival in society.  And also peace among ethnic groups and organi-sations.
All these and more are what I will do  if I become a leader of Nigeria.

By: Wisdom God’swork

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