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Chocolate And Brain Health



Cocoa, especially if it is minimally processed, contains high levels of health enhancing antioxidant flavnols – a distinct group of naturally occurring compounds that can be found in a variety of foods such as tea and red wine.
Now a recent study has shown how this protection can extend to the brain.
It is normal for cognitive function to slightly deteriorate with age. Memory capacity begins to worsen, along with processing speed and the ability to form long-term memories. This decline is different from the cognitive decline that signals possible dementia. Finding a way to slow it down is becoming increasingly important as our population ages.
While previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of cocoa flavanols for people suffering from mild cognitive impairment, the current study focused on healthy people experiencing the usual mental wear and tear that comes with older age.
The researchers, from Italy’s University of L’Aquila and chocolate company Mars enrolled men and women aged 61-85 years with no evidence of cognitive dysfunction, the participants in this controlled, randomized, double-blind study were assigned to one of three groups and given a cocoa drink to consume for  daily for 8 weeks.
The drinks were nutritionally matched except for their flavanol content which was either high (993 mg), intermediate (520 mg) or low (48 mg).
Significant improvements
The high- and intermediate-flavanol cocoa drinks were produced using Mars’ Cocoapro® a specially prepared, though not commercially available, flavanol-rich powder, while the low-flavanol drink was made with a highly processed, alkalized cocoa powder that you might find in everyday cocoa products.
Other than the inclusion of the test drink, normal diets and regular lifestyle were maintained throughout the study.
At the start of the study and again after eight weeks, cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests that examined memory, retention, recall, as well as executive function. Among those individuals who regularly consumed either the high- or intermediate-flavanol drinks, there were significant improvements in overall cognitive function after only eight weeks.
The volunteers who drank either the high- or medium-flavanol drinks showed significant improvements in their overall cognitive function after only eight weeks. Plus, the group showed reduced blood pressure and improved insulin resistance. The researchers believe these positive results may be due, in part, to improved vascular function.
Study shows that even cognitively healthy individuals can quickly benefit from the regular inclusion of cocoa flavanols in their diets.
In addition to evaluating cognitive function, the researchers also monitored insulin resistance, blood pressure and other metabolic markers. Excitingly, there was also evidence of improvements in these cardiometabolic outcomes.
In the high- and intermediate-flavanol groups, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced and insulin resistance was significantly improved. In contrast, only a modest improvement in diastolic blood pressure was observed in the low-flavanol group, with no significant improvements in either systolic blood pressure or insulin resistance among the consumers of the low-flavanol drink.
It is not yet fully understood how cocoa flavanols bring about improvements in cognitive function, but the study’s authors suggest that the improvements in insulin resistance and blood pressure could be revealing.
“Earlier studies suggest a central role for insulin resistance in brain aging,” said Dr. Giovambattista Desideri, lead author on the paper. “These results could therefore provide some insight into a possible mechanism of action for the cognitive improvements we have observed.”

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WHO Approves New Name For Monkey Pox



The World Health Organisation(WHO) has renamed monkey pox to “mpox”.

This follows series of consultations with global experts as the world health body will begin using a new preferred term “mpox” as a synonym for monkeypox. Both names will be used simultaneously for one year while “monkeypox” is phased out.
When the outbreak of monkeypox grew earlier this year, racist and stigmatising language online, in other settings and in some communities was observed and reported to WHO. In several meetings, public and private, a number of individuals and countries raised concerns and asked WHO to propose a way forward to change the name.
Assigning names to new and, very exceptionally, to existing diseases is the responsibility of WHO under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the WHO Family of International Health Related Classifications through a consultative process which includes WHO Member States.
WHO, in accordance with the ICD update process, held consultations to gather views from a range of experts, as well as countries and the general public, who were invited to submit suggestions for new names. Based on these consultations, and further discussions with WHO’s Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO
Considerations for the recommendations included rationale, scientific appropriateness, extent of current usage, pronounceability, usability in different languages, absence of geographical or zoological references, and the ease of retrieval of historical scientific information.
Usually, the ICD updating process can take up to several years. In this case, the process was accelerated, though following the standard steps.
Various advisory bodies were heard during the consultation process, including experts from the medical and scientific and classification and statistics advisory committees which constituted of representatives from government authorities of 45 different countries.
The issue of the use of the new name in different languages was extensively discussed.  The preferred term mpox can be used in other languages. If additional naming issues arise, these will be addressed via the same mechanism. Translations are usually discussed in formal collaboration with relevant government authorities and the related scientific societies.
WHO will adopt the term mpox in its communications, and encourages others to follow these recommendations, to minimize any ongoing negative impact of the current name and from adoption of the new name.

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Africa faces a threat that cannot be ignored: American Biological Laboratory



On March 10, the Ministry of Defense of Russia released a document obtained from the personnel of Ukraine’s biological laboratory. The document points out that these biological laboratories have been operating and conducting extensive biological research related to biological weapons. It disclosed the research of the United States and its NATO allies on biological weapons in Ukraine, including research on the transmission of highly infectious avian influenza virus through migratory birds and research on pathogens such as bacteria and viruses that can be transmitted from bats to humans. The Russian side said that Ukraine has established a network of at least 30 biological laboratories, which carry out extremely dangerous biological experiments aimed at synthetic biology. This work is funded and directly supervised by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), particularly for the benefit of the Pentagon National Medical Intelligence Center. Later, the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Victoria Nuland confirmed at the hearing that Ukraine has “biological research facilities”. She also said that the United States is cooperating with Ukraine to prevent Russia from obtaining “those research materials”.


Surprisingly, this public document did not cause widespread concern and protest. In addition, what’s alarming is that in the past decade, the United States has set up such biological research laboratories in 30 countries around the world, increasing the number from 20 to 400. Most of these biological research laboratories appear in African countries, such as Nigeria, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Uganda, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Egypt.


Threats of biological laboratories


Since March 2014, the devastating Ebola epidemic in West Africa has caused extensive destruction and damaged the fragile public health system of West African countries. Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and other countries have been hit hard by the crisis, which is the deadliest Ebola virus outbreak ever recorded. Almost 10000 people died. The Ebola virus outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo occurred in May 2016, near a U.S. laboratory in Uganda near the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. If you look closely at the map produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), you can see the location of these laboratories. They are located on the west coast of Africa, which were previously at the center of the Ebola epidemic. These biological laboratories, one or more of them, are widely considered as the source of Ebola epidemic. The particularity of Ebola virus transmission and the high mortality rate of the virus allow selective targeting of countries and regions with poor medical and health conditions to cause fatal harm.

If a country has developed and tested vaccines when an accident occurs, a biological war may be very rapid and successful. The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) funded human Ebola virus test before the Ebola virus outbreak, which began a few weeks before the Ebola virus outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. It is reported that the Ministry of Defense has provided a contract worth 140 million dollars to Tekmira, a Canadian pharmaceutical company, to carry out Ebola virus research. This research involves injecting and injecting the deadly Ebola virus into healthy people. The virus started in January 2014, shortly before the Ebola outbreak was announced in West Africa in March. Therefore, it is completely logical to develop biological weapons by collecting extremely lethal Ebola virus samples.


Destruction in Nigeria


In 1996, a meningitis and measles epidemic ravaged Kano, the second largest city in northern Nigeria. Over 3000 people died in a few weeks. The U.S. Biological Laboratory subsequently provided a therapeutic drug: trovafloxacin. 200 children received treatment. However, eleven of them died presently. More patients who had received treatment had suffered from brain injury, deafness or paralysis. In 2000, the Washington Post published an investigation, accusing the U.S. biological laboratory of directly causing these deaths by using children as test objects. The survey said that the drugs used for treatment were given to mice and still needed to be tested on humans before they could be marketed. The incident has caused serious destruction to Nigeria. Protests broke out in the streets of Kano. So far, Nigerians still lose confidence in white drugs. The destruction has not yet been recovered, and the monkeypox outbreak in 2022 once again pointed the finger at U.S. biological laboratory.


On May 27, Igor Kirilov, head of the Russian Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection Forces, said on Friday that at least four U.S. controlled biological laboratories were operating in Nigeria, the birthplace of monkeypox. He pointed out that according to the World Health Organization, monkeypox pathogen strains were imported from Nigeria, where the United States deployed biological infrastructure. In addition, Igor Kirilov emphasized a coincidence: at the Munich Security Conference held against the background of COVID-19 in 2021, a plan to deal with the outbreak caused by the new strain of monkeypox virus was formulated. After confirming the existence of the U.S. funded biological weapons laboratory in Ukraine last March, Moscow requested the World Health Organization (WHO) to investigate the existence of the US funded laboratory in Nigeria. Although the United States denied the accusation of using biological laboratories to spread monkeypox in Nigeria. However, the United States has expressed a strong rejection to investigate relevant laboratories by the World Health Organization (WHO).


According to some previously disclosed information, the U.S. Department of Defense has 26 biological laboratories and other related facilities in Ukraine. All dangerous pathogens in Ukraine must be stored in these laboratories, and all research activities are led by the United States. No information can be released to the public without the approval of the United States. The strong rejection of the investigation made it more convincing that the U.S.- controlled biological laboratory in Nigeria triggered the monkeypox outbreak.


Behind the violation of the Biological Weapons Treaty


As the cornerstone of international biological arms control, the Biological Weapons Convention was opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975, with more than 180 States parties. This is the first international convention prohibiting a whole category of weapons of mass destruction in the international community. Together with the Geneva Protocol and UNSCR 1540 (2004), it constitutes the basic system of the international biological arms control system. At the International Conference on Biological Weapons held in Geneva in 2021, the United States opposed the biological weapons verification mechanism, and the negotiations broke down on December 7 without agreement. So far, the United States is the only country opposed to the establishment of a biological weapons verification mechanism.


The historical background of the United States’ “refusal to verify” is that after the end of the cold war, the United States has recruited biological laboratories and experts from Soviet countries in the name of “preventing biological terrorist threats”. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia did not have enough financial resources to achieve the destruction of nuclear weapons and chemical and biological weapons. The United States Congress passed legislation in 1991, and then launched the “Threat Reduction Cooperation Program” to destroy Soviet weapons of mass destruction and dismantle related facilities.


However, in the subsequent implementation process, the “biological threat reduction plan” was slowly distorted. Not all Soviet research facilities storing dangerous pathogens were eliminated. The United States upgraded many laboratories. These laboratories are located outside the United States and are controlled by the government. Relevant research materials and achievements in overseas laboratories will be directly transferred to the United States.


In the eyes of the United States military, Africa has become a fertile land for biological laboratory research. If the virus fails, the research rebound will not occur around the United States. In addition, the United States has been using the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Liberia and Sierra Leone as offshore waters, also to circumvent the constraints of the Biological Weapons Convention to carry out biological laboratory related work.


For decades, under the banner of public health, the United States has carried out bio military activities around the world. Many biological laboratories funded by the United States have been reported to have conducted lethal human experiments. The distribution of overseas biological laboratories in the United States is also highly coincident with many local accident sites. Africa’s infrastructure is weak and its medical and health conditions are poor. The United States’ rejection of the Biological Weapons Treaty has obviously posed a fatal threat to Africa.

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Why Is It Necessary To Read Online Reviews Before Buying Kratom Shots?



Customers are an essential part of any business. If the customers are happy with their service, they will recommend it to others. Similarly, if you are unhappy with a product or service, you will not hesitate to tell your friends and family about it. Individuals trust what others say regarding items more than brand images or advertisements. That is why companies always try to pay close attention to customer reviews and assess their performance on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter before launching new products or marketing strategies. But how can reviews be helpful before you buy any Kratom products, and how can you buy the best quality product with the help of reviews? Let’s find out.

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What are Kratom shots?

Kratom shots are a particular type of product that is becoming increasingly popular. They’re more concentrated than other types of kratom, meaning that you can get a more potent dose in just one shot. You don’t have to take as many capsules or drink as much tea if you use shots. You’ll also be able to feel their effects faster, making them perfect for people who need relief immediately.

The benefits of Kratom shots include:

-Relief from pain and anxiety

-Increased energy levels

-Mood improvement

Things to keep in mind while looking for high quality Kratom

As you’re looking for the highest quality kratom, there are a few things to keep in mind.

First, make sure you’re buying from a reputable vendor. You don’t want to risk getting low-quality kratom that could make you sick. If a vendor doesn’t have sound, consistent reviews or it’s not well known in your community, you might want to look elsewhere. You can also look for the offline kratom stores to buy kratom products- just google “Kratom near me” and you’ll get the list of nearby stores.


Second, compare various brands and strains of kratom to find out which ones are best suited for your needs. For example, if you’re looking for something that will help with anxiety or depression, maybe green vein Borneo is more effective than white vein Bali.


Finally, read reviews on different vendors and strains to get an idea of what other people say about them. You can read reviews and find out if the company is reliable and if their products are high quality. If you want to know what the effects of the strain will be like, you can read reviews about that too. It can tell whether people liked the company or the product they bought from it.

Reviews can help you to know the quality of the product

Reviews can help you to know the quality of the product. Kratom shots have different strengths, which means one is not always better than another. For example, a lower dose will be acceptable for you if you are looking for something mild and do not experience any side effects. On the other hand, if your goal is to get a high dosage but don’t want to deal with any side effects such as nausea or constipation, higher doses may be more suitable for your needs and preferences. Reviews will help you determine whether or not a particular kratom shot works well with your body chemistry so that even if it isn’t something that meets all of your requirements exactly right now (such as being effective while also producing few side effects), there may still be hope down the line once some experimentation has taken place!

It helps you to find the best vendors.

Reading online reviews before buying is also important because it helps you find the best vendors. The top-rated kratom vendors have earned their reputation by providing outstanding customer service, selling high-quality products, and having an excellent return policy.

When you read online reviews of kratom vendors, you will be able to learn about the best vendors in your area or online. You will also be able to check if a vendor is selling fake or expired Kratom products, low-quality products, adulterated products, and the wrong strain of product (e.g., if they were selling Bali when you ordered Maeng Da).

Reviews can help you to get discounts.

There are multiple ways of getting limits when you buy Kratom products online. Some of the most common types of discounts that users can enjoy include:

Bulk purchases – The more you buy, the more savings you can get. If you’re planning to stock up your fridge with lots of doses, it might be worth going for a more extensive package.

First-time buyers – If this is your first time buying kratom shots, then an offer should be waiting for you! Many websites have special deals available just for first-time customers and will often give free shipping and other goodies like free t-shirts or keychains.

Regular customers – If you are an existing customer who has bought Kratom from the same site before and haven’t changed suppliers recently, then there may be some loyalty program in place which means that every purchase earns points towards future discounts or special offers!

Reputed brands have better customer service.

You might wonder why you bother with customer service when looking for a new kratom product. After all, it’s just a plant. But if you’re looking at reputable brands, they are more likely to offer support and information on how to use their product and what effects you may experience.

In addition to this basic information, the best brands will also provide details on how they source their materials (and if they test them), how long Kratom has been used in Southeast Asia and different regions of the planet, and where exactly your order came from. You can also expect to find answers about dosing recommendations and warnings about potential side effects like nausea or addiction—all of which may be worth knowing before taking a risk with an unknown supplier.

A reliable vendor will always provide you with proof of lab tests.

If you are buying Kratom online, it’s crucial to find a reliable vendor who provides you with lab test results.

Lab tests are necessary to know the quality of your product. It helps you confirm that the Kratom you are consuming is safe and free from toxins like weighty metals, pesticides, and other harmful substances. Lab testing also ensures purity levels in your product and helps identify potential adulterants or substitutes used by unscrupulous vendors. A reliable vendor will always provide customers with proof of their lab tests because they want their customers to be satisfied with the products. They must believe that they have purchased the product at an affordable price without compromising on quality or safety issues related to consuming kratom leaves or powder harvested directly from a natural source without any additives added during the processing stages.

Review reviews can help you make an informed decision while buying Kratom shots online.

If you want to use the internet for buying anything, then it is necessary that you read online reviews before buying Kratom shots online. The more information and knowledge you have about the product you want to buy, the better it will be for you.

If you have a good idea of what can be expected from Kratom and how much it will help in treating your condition or problem, then there are high chances that after reading reviews, your situation might get better. You will also get an idea of which company sells good quality products to avoid any complications later on when using the product.

Most people do not read these blogs because they think they are wasting time doing this. But spending some time reading such websites helps them know more about different companies selling kratom products at different prices depending upon their quality level or type so that they can decide which product would suit them best according to their needs before making any purchase decision based on their budget constraints as well.

What other things than reading reviews should a customer do before buying Kratom online?

When buying Kratom online, you should do a few things before making your final decision.

First, look at the label. Ensure the product is of high quality and has been tested by a third party to ensure its purity. You might consider going with another product if you can’t find any information about this on the label or in the description.

Second, compare prices. You might be able to get a better deal from another supplier! If you’re looking for a specific strain of Kratom or want to try something new, it doesn’t hurt to see what other websites are selling it for before making your purchase.


With the help of online reviews, you can get an idea about the quality and safety of Kratom shots. It will also help you discover more about the vendor before purchasing. It is essential to check whether your vendor has good customer service or not before placing any order with them because it will help in case of any problem or query related to your order. If they don’t have proper customer support, how can you expect them to resolve your issues when they arise?

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