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NAPTIP And Modern-Day Slavery In Nigeria

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To be a slave is to be
controlled by another person or persons, so that your will does not determine your life’s course, and rewards for your work and sacrifices are not yours to claim.
Kevin Bales, one of the world’s leading experts on contemporary slavery, says “people are enslaved by violence and held against their wills for purposes of exploitation.” In his book— Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy—Bales says there are still about 27 million slaves in the world today!
The transatlantic slave trade of between the 15th and 19th century brought the word ‘slavery’ to the fore, because it had been practiced all over the world for as long as there had been man.
The abolition of (the transatlantic) slave trade in the 1830s ended the large shipments of African slaves to the so-called Western world of Europe and America, including their plantations in the West Indies. But it did not end local or domestic slavery of yore.
However, modern day slavery in Nigeria bared its ugly fangs several years ago when some compatriots started cunning fellow Nigerians into servitude, either within the country or mostly abroad. The words ‘Human Trafficking’ thus became a household name and government had to come down hard on the perpetrators.
People of all ages were, and are still being lured from their homes or towns with mouth-watering promises, only to find themselves in servitude, with the reward of their labour—be it prostitution, bone-breaking menial jobs—especially after being trafficked to foreign lands, being paid to the conman. The conman is the owner of those he/she had trafficked.
The Federal Government, in its efforts to fight trafficking in persons, through the National Assembly enacted the Trafficking In Persons (Prohibition) Law (TIP) Enforcement and (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act 2003 (amended in 2005).
The law is a domestication of the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, particularly in Women and Children (Palermo Protocol).
The NAPTIP Act 2003 (as amended in 2005) defines TIP in its Section 50 as:“all acts and attempted acts involved in the recruitment, transportation, within or across Nigeria border, purchase, sale, transfer, receipt or harbouring of a person involving the use of or harbouring of a person involving the use of holding the person whether for or not in involuntary servitude (domestic sexual or Involuntary servitude (domestic, sexual or reproductive) in forced or bonded labour or in slavery like condition.
The agency followed the six geo-political zones arrangement on ground for its administrative efficiency— with Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Ekiti and Osun states forming the South-West Zone .
Also, to better ensure that victims’ rights are respected, NAPTIP formed a committee in mid-2009 to review ‘victim care policies’, aiming to strike a balance between ensuring victims’ safety in shelters and promoting their freedom of movement.
Mr Joseph Famakid, the South-West Zonal Commander of NAPTIP in Lagos, says the agency had secured 233 convictions in courts in cases against human traffickers in the zone in the past 10 years.
“In 2013, Lagos Zone alone recorded 17 convictions of human traffickers and so far in 2014, we have recorded seven convictions. Presently, we have about 54 cases pending in various courts in the zone.’’
Famakid also said the agency had positively influenced the lives of many victims of human trafficking by ensuring they were engaged in various legitimate businesses like catering and hairdressing, through
its partner agencies, so that they could become self-reliant.
“As soon as they become professionals in those fields, our partners will return them to us for empowerment. This involves equipping them with tools and other materials based on their field, needed to start life again.
“We do this periodically. We also rent shops for them to practice the skills they have acquired and monitor them to ensure that they don’t sell the equipment given to them.
“We also do what we call family tracing by returning them to their places of origin and we continue to monitor their progress. This is how we bring them back and re-integrate them into the society.’’
A sad twist to ‘man being the owner of another man,’ alias slavery, was also introduced recently in Nigeria through “baby factories”. In this wise, young girls—some with unwanted pregnancies or forcefully impregnated—are deprived of their babies right from the labour rooms.
Some of the mothers actually sign agreements to sell their babies. Some of these cases are being prosecuted across Nigeria.
Such babies are then sold to those who will use, resell, export, and do all sorts of odd things with them because they are ‘purchased human beings’ and are owned like shoes and cars.
Observers say domestic animals, especially pets, have much more freedom and dignity than trafficked persons as they are always hidden from lawful authorities and do illegal duties for their owners.
Human traffickers are known to be very diabolic in that they hypnotise, put them on blood-chilling oaths, or charm them to remain in servitude, more or less zombies.
“The victims believe in the efficacy of the oaths, so it takes us a long process to be able to convince them that they can trust us and they can give us information,’’ says Famakid.
Famakid urges the public, including NGOs, to assist NAPTIP “to fight the modern day slavery.’’
Some lawyers have also called for better ways of improving the work of NAPTIP, including better funding.
Mr Nice Ologun, a Lagos-based lawyer, notes that the government was yet to satisfy the minimum standards provided in the 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act, as amended.
“Government should grant the same attention given to gay marriage to human trafficking, by legislating remarkable preventive measures that will largely reduce the menace,” he says.
Another lawyer, Mr Spurgeon Ataene says: “Nigeria has an anti-trafficking act, Lagos State has since adopted it in Section 274 of the Criminal Law of Lagos State,2011”.
He also calls for the re-orientation of the populace on the dangers of human trafficking and the prosecution of offenders.
In all, most victims of human trafficking, excluding underage, have a large share of blame in the calamity that has befallen them. They can be called greedy and unreasonable.
If not, how else can someone you have known from childhood in a village disappear into the city for a few months, come back to the village with a big car (borrowed or owned) and promise to make you a millionaire and you follow him!
It is like seeing some gullible clan heads in some old films selling their own people to Europeans during the transatlantic slave trade for pittances like mirrors and rum
Oladipo by  News Agency of Nigeria.

 

Oluwakemi Oladipo

President Goodluck Jonathan and Senate President, David Mark

President Goodluck Jonathan and Senate President, David Mark

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…Creates Two New Offices In Govt House

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The Rivers State Governor, Chief Nyesom Wike has announced the creation of two new executive offices to guarantee efficiency and effectiveness of activities at the Government House, in Port Harcourt.
The governor’s action was made known in a statement signed by the Special Assistant on Media to the Rivers State Governor, Kelvin Ebiri in Government House, Port Harcourt, last Monday.
The terse statement reads, “To ensure activities are functioning efficiently and effectively, the Rivers State Governor, Chief Nyesom Wike has announced the creation of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Government House, Port Harcourt.
“The Deputy Chief of Staff will be in charge of the Logistics, Correspondence of the Governor and Legal Matters.
“Similarly, he has also announced the creation of the Office of the Special Adviser on Aviation”.

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Accelerating Gender Parity In Nigeria

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In virtually all societies, women are in an inferior position to men. Sex or gender determines  more rights and dignity for men in legal, social and cultural situations, These are reflected on unequal access to or enjoyment of rights in favour of men.
There are also the assumption of stereotype social and cultural roles.
In Nigeria, gender inequality has been for decades in spite of modernization and the fact that many females have done better than men in many spheres.
Analysts are convinced that gender inequality is largely influenced by religious and cultural beliefs, as some cultures and religions still hold strongly that women are the weaker vessels created mainly to be home keepers and child bearers.
Analysts are also worried that gender inequality negatively affects status in all areas of life in society, whether public or private, in the family or labour market.
Although the Global Gender Gap Report 2018 by the World Economic Forum (WEF) shows some progress amongst the 149 countries that were indexed, the progress toward closing the gender gap is slow, because it will take 108 years to close the gender gap and another 202 years to achieve parity in the workforce, according to the report.
The report benchmarks the 149 countries on their progress toward gender parity across four dimensions – economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment.
A number of initiatives have been made by corporate organisations and governmental and non-governmental organisations  to address gender imbalance in Nigeria.
One of the latest is the launch of First Women Network  (FWN) by the First Bank of Nigeria Ltd., in commemoration of the 2019 International Women’s Day (IWD).
IWD is celebrated globally every March 8 to recognise social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women.
The celebration is also a call to action for accelerating gender parity.
The global theme for the 2019 celebration is “Think Equal, Build Smart, Innovate for Change” while the theme for the social media campaign is “#BalanceforBetter”.
According to the bank, the FWN initiative is an avenue for career management and mentoring for women to enable them to balance their career with private endeavours.
The aim,  according to the bank, is to address gender gap and increase women representation in its senior and executive levels, as well as encourage women to tap into opportunities and contribute to nation-building.
The bank’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Dr Adesola Adeduntan,  explains that First Women Network is targeted at the banks’ staff and customers, among others.
He believes that women can achieve more if given the necessary strategic support, hoping that the initiative
will increase the bank’s productivity and profitability.
Adeduntan notes that the initiative is  also a demonstration of First Bank’s adherence to the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Sustainable Development Goals which mandate increased women representation in all banks.
The sustainable goals require that the financial services sector should adopt a quota system to increase women representation on boards to 30 per cent and that of senior management level to 40 per cent by 2014.
Adeduntan is optimistic that the FWN will address six key area –  career management, personal branding, mentoring, welfare, financial planning and empowerment.
He is convinced that the initiative will address gender disparity at the workplace.
“It is commonly agreed that gender parity is an essential factor influencing the advancement of institutions, economies and societies.
“Studies have shown that gender parity in corporations promotes increased performance and returns on investment.
“The need to invest in composite women empowerment and enhance their contributions at senior management levels to achieve organisational goals cannot be over-emphasised,” the CEO says.
For him,  it is paradoxical that the presence of women in paid employments continues to increase, yet the progression of professional women to positions of leadership and management remains slow.
“Gender gaps persist in economic opportunities and political participation in many countries.
“This is part of the reasons for this women network initiative,” he notes.
The chief executive officer wants employers of labour and the entire society to encourage women to advance, excel and contribute optimally in  workplaces and communities.
Mr Abiodun  Famuyiwa, group head, Products and Marketing Support, promises that First Bank  will continue to promote female entrepreneurship for national growth and development.
“We recognise that promoting female entrepreneurship and independence is key to economic viability of every home in the country,” he says.
 According to him, FWN is a further demonstration of the bank’s commitment to women empowerment after the launch  of FirstGem in 2016.
He is satisfied that FirstGem is providing opportunities for women to achieve their financial goals and aspirations through with access to support funds, free business advice, specialised trainings on business development and insight on business development.
For Mr Lampe Omoyele, managing director, Nitro 121, an integrated marketing communications agency,  points out that courage is important in addressing gender imbalance.
“For gender imbalance to be resolved, there has to be courage, vision, values and character,” he says.
He is convinced that women should  have courage and confidence in taking risks within  organisations.
Omoyele advises that women must not play the victims.
“Ultimately, whether you are a female or male, what is going to sustain you is your character and values.
“You need to have values; character is important in the balance that we live to, and it sustains you as you move into the future,” he adds.
The Chief Executive Officer,  Standard  Chartered Bank, Mrs Bola Adesola, wants women to take advantage of FWN to make their lives better.
 She urges women to aspire to grow in their endeavours and refuse be limited because of their gender, stressing that they should use all resources at their disposal to grow.
 For the bank chief, FWN is not a silver bullet to creating the first female chief executive officer of First Bank, but  about opportunity.
“So, it is important that as women, we take advantage of it,” she urges.
 Ms Cecilia Akintomide, independent non-executive director, FBN Holdings Plc, is dissatisfied that Nigeria is still far in gender balancing.
Akintomide says Nigerian  women are still being restricted from working in some places and owning some property.
According to her, restrictions are rendering 50 per cent of Nigeria’s population –  mainly women –  economically unviable.
 A First Bank customer,  Mrs Ifeyinwa Okoye, lauds the FWN, and urges the bank to ensure that its customers – the secondary target of FWN –  benefit from it.
Okoye describes women as critical to economic growth and development but regrets that many women were lagging behind in their endeavours because of gender inequality.
She wants the banks to enlighten its customers on FWN for maximum results.
 “If you empower a woman, you empower a nation.
“Empowering women is especially effective because the benefits are felt throughout the whole community,” she argues.
Analysts call for more strategic support for Nigerian women to  enhance gender parity.


By: Chinyere Joel-Nwokeoma
Joel-Nwokeoma is of the News Agency of Nigeria.

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Covid-19 Vaccination: Role Of Local Leaders

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It was a matter of time, but Covid-19 vaccination has already started to generate heated arguments following a hint that the Federal Government could start sanctioning anybody who refused to be vaccinated.
Dr Faisal Shuaib, Executive Director,  National Primary Health Care Development Agency, NPHCDA, disclosed this at a recent press conference in Abuja. He, however, said that implementation was dependent on availability of the vaccines.
“The Presidential Steering Committee and the Federal Ministry of Health are exploring ways of making vaccines more available to all Nigerians, including federal civil servants and corporate entities.
“Once these vaccines are made equitably available to all Nigerians, then we will need to have a frank discussion about justice, fairness and liberty that exist around vaccine hesitancy.
“So, you have a right to refuse vaccines, but you do not have the right to endanger the health of others,” he said.
Already, attempts have been made by two states – Ondo and Edo – to make Covid-19 vaccination compulsory, especially for public servants and members of the public who wish to gain access to certain places.
These places include religious worship centres, banks and public buildings.
However, those attempts and the suggestion that the Federal Government might sanction those who refuse vaccination have been criticised by some trade, professional and religious associations.
 The Nigeria Medical Association (NMA) and Joint Health Sector Union (JOHESU) that kicked against the compulsory vaccination, said that government should rather embark on advocacy and persuasion, than coerce citizens into getting vaccinated.
The spokesman for JOHESU, Mr Olumide Akintayo, said the policy would only be sensible if there were enough vaccines to inoculate eligible citizens.
Akintayo stated: “If you are thinking of it in terms of responsibility, it makes sense; but practically, we all know it is an impossible task.
“ If all the doses that have been sent to Nigeria since this outbreak is less than 10 million, how do you enforce that kind of policy in a country of over 200 million people?
“You don’t just come up with policies that are not backed by common sense; you don’t just say things because you want to talk. It would have made some sense if the vaccines are available for everyone.”
The General Secretary of the NMA, Philips Ekpe, said citizens could not be forced to be vaccinated against Covid-19 the same way they had the right to reject medical treatment.
Rather than being forced, he said Nigerians should be made to understand the need to be vaccinated. 
According to him, although they cannot be forced, citizens who refuse vaccination should stay in their houses so that they don’t endanger others.
He said: “The Federal Government needs to make people understand the reason why they need to be vaccinated. They have the right to say no. You cannot force people. People have the right to say no to medical treatment.
“But you should let them understand the dangers of not getting vaccinated.
“For example, if you want to travel out of the country, if you are not vaccinated, you will not be let in. The reason is because the other country you are going to won’t want to endanger the lives of its citizens.
“Let them understand the importance, but then if they refuse, they should stay in their houses and not go out and endanger others.”
Experts believe that properly communicating the advantages of being vaccinated, through the use of existing structures, such as religious and cultural institutions, would yield better results than subtle threats.
Communication connotes persuasion, even on occasions when the purpose of a piece of communication is not to persuade, there is still the need to win over the audience to accept the message.
In this era of fake news, and when the social media is awash with conspiracy theories against vaccination, persuasion must first be deployed to get the attention of citizens.
The burden increases tremendously when there are cultural and religious stereotypes which could prevent many adherents from accepting that being vaccinated is safe.
This challenge is not peculiar to Nigeria. In the U.S. for instance, vaccine hesitancy is responsible for over 90 per cent of all Covid-19 related hospitalisation.
Getting some Americans vaccinated has been so challenging that many people have been offered monetary incentives to convince them to get vaccinated in an unusual case of persuasion.
In Nigeria, where religious and traditional leaders are custodians of faith and culture respectively, they wield great influence on devotees and those institutions can be deployed to boost vaccination drive.
Historically, religious and traditional rulers often employ the cognitive process of persuasive communication to change an entrenched social perception or public opinion hindering required public support for relevant people-oriented policies.
Leaders have the influence to subtly appeal to the target to listen, accept, comprehend and act.
Therefore, before considering the stick, government should first explore the use of carrot.
Religious and traditional leaders can help in giving correct messages on vaccination as well as being role models, making sure that they and their loved ones too are vaccinated.
Faith-based and culture-based organisations can also collaborate with other leaders to sensitise communities on the benefits of vaccination and to also dispel the many myths and disinformation about it.
King Bubaraye Dakolo of Epetiama Kingdom in Bayelsa has been putting this practice to use, since vaccination was first rolled out in Nigeria in March.
“The arrival of the vaccine brought a huge relief to our kingdom. I mobilised my people to carry out awareness campaigns in the various communities to guard against apathy.
“My council chiefs and I led by example in being vaccinated early. When the people saw that, they were fully convinced that the vaccine is not harmful.
“We made it clear to our people through town hall meetings that the vaccine is safe and is designed to save humanity.
“We equally reminded them how some persons who refused to be vaccinated for poliomyelitis in the past are suffering the consequences of their actions today,” the traditional ruler said. 
According to the WHO Covid-19 Dashboard, Nigeria had administered 4.4 million Covid-19 vaccine doses as at Aug. 31, 2021. Out of that number, 2.9 million Nigerians have been fully vaccinated, according to the NPHCDA.
With a fairly efficient vaccination structure, owing to many years of immunisation against polio, the Nigerian government should activate collaboration with religious and traditional bodies in its vaccination drive.
Experts, including health professionals and public administrators, believe that involving these leaders in advocacy and public enlightenment will lead to more people accepting to voluntarily get Covid-19 vaccination.
Of course, with just a paltry 0.7 per cent of the population vaccinated, the key indicator for any punitive measure for avoiding vaccination will be subject to availability of the vaccines.
However, to achieve the goal of vaccinating 40 per cent of its 200 million population before the end of 2021 and 70 per cent by the end of 2022, Nigeria will need more than availability of vaccines.
There has to be the acceptance and willingness of the majority of its population to be vaccinated.
One of the crucial and effective way to achieve that is to work with religious and traditional leaders.

By: Kayode Adebiyi

Adebiyi writes for News Agency of Nigeria.

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