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Two years of Bankole In The Saddle: The Gains, The Pains, The Pitfalls

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Mr Dimeji Sabur Bankole was two years as speaker of the House of Representatives, November 2, 2009. In July, 2009, a plot to unseat him was revealed at the plenary session of the day, bringing the total attempts to remove his leadership to at least four since he assumed office. But, somehow, he survived.

On that July plenary, a distraught Abdul Ningi (PDP/Bauchi) , a charismatic figure and former Leader of the House, had complained that someone  was impersonating him. According to him, the person had sent text messages to some members asking that the leadership of the House be removed.

Interestingly, the person sent the text to him too. Distancing himself from the plot, Ningi had said that he was very embarrassed by the message. The deputy speaker, Bayero Nafada, who presided over plenary that day, cleared Ningi from the conspiracy, vouching for his integrity.

Powerrul committee

He told the Green Chamber that a powerful committee had been set up to fish out the culprit(s). It was  then clear why Bankole did not preside over proceedings that day, though  he had led principal officers into the chamber, and had even said the opening prayers.

The speaker immediately after the prayers stepped down for Nafada. He then started going from seat to seat, chatting up members, while proceedings went on. Many observers said it was a move to consolidate his friendship with those he wasn’t so sure of their loyalty.

And that observation was correct, since he avoided going to the woman (Patricia Etteh) whom he had replaced amidst rancour. He also shunned Independence Ogunewe, the man who does not hide the fact that Bankole is not his man, as the speaker not only suspended him but also stripped him of standing committee membership. But Bankole as since managed to have a firm grip over the House as he marked his second year as  speaker.

Budget implementation: Civil servants as enemies of state

Last Tuesday, as he presided over proceedings of the House, Bankole, for the umpteenth  time, upbraided the civil service over unremitted revenue and poor budget implementation. His words: “Now, it is obvious that the civil service is the problem.

It is painfully obvious. The records are very clear that the question of output (release of funds) had been significantly solved but it is now a question of desired and expected outcomes of  the budget.  The engine room of government, which is the civil service, has not performed.

“How come monies amounting to about N500 billion approved for certain projects is still lying fallow at the CBN? We have information that some roads contracts that were awarded in  this years’s budget have not been executed three months after the contractors were mobilized. We need to begin to push further to see that the civil service works and need to do this with all of us on the same side.”

He said that over N70 billion was generated by government agencies and squandered. Bankole was indeed in his element, and he had his facts and figures.  And that has been his posture over this issue in the last two years.

Achievements: Keen watchers of the House believe that the insistence that Nigeria could be richer if ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs) of government that generate revenue remit what they make to the Federation Account  may be his biggest achievement since becoming speaker.

The Committee on Finance of the House which carried out investigations on revenues generated by MDAs submitted its report last month. According to the report, MDAs have generated at least N1 trillion in the last five years and squandered all.

Oversight functions: It is also believed that House Committees now take oversight duties more seriously. Bankole had purchased cars for members last year for that duty, though that action almost cost him his job. Last month, he threatened to sack any committee chairman that did not submit his third quarter report before November 7, 2009.

Faltering welfare: After an executive session, last July, members emerged grim-faced. Their remunerations had been slashed by almost half.

Reason given was that many new tax initiatives had crept into their take-home packages,  thus eating up a good chunk. This clearly irked most of them, who, as politicians, pride themselves as belonging to the upper echelon of the “business”, and  needed every kobo to meet up both personal and constituency demands.

Though it was explained that the problem was with the National Assembly Management, which did not explain beforehand how the deductions were made, many still believe that the leadership is lackadaisical to their welfare. But, somehow, the loyalty of members to their speaker keeps waxing stronger, invoking  speculations that he must have devised a means of “settling” them.

Unspent billions: Unlike under the past regimes of the House when unspent funds of the two chambers of the  National Assembly were shared among lawmakers on a formula based  on rank, last year, the House returned N2.1 billion to the treasury. Though outwardly, members bragged that the House, which is the champion of returning unspent appropriation to the treasury,  they still fumed in private.  Those who have stayed  long enough looked back with nostalgia to  when such funds were  shared.

Talking down on members: Some of the members said the speaker has penchant for talking  down on members, both in and out of the chambers. And true, during  plenary, reporters covering proceedings from the press  gallery have been taken aback a few times by the manner an  exasperated Bankole shouted down on recalcitrant colleagues. Most would sulk about their humiliation.  At least one member  had been suspended and stripped of committee membership when he refused to obey  Bankole’s order to take his seat and remain silent.

The ghost of  power probe: A monthly  news magazine once published a story on the power probe instituted by the House which the leadership found unsettling.  The magazine – The Lawmaker – , which the National Assembly subscribes to, was  audacious to say Bankole should resign because of the way the power probe was handled.

The Lawmaker made many claims, saying that there were a lot of underhand  dealings that led to the rubbishing of the power probe report. The magazine quoted members as swearing that that the truth about the power must be revealed. It turned out that it was mere wishful thinking. But, the power probe was the most inglorious project ever embarked upon by any chamber of the National Assembly since 1999. And, in view of that, Nigerians  will forever hold the Reps in suspicion in whatever they do, no matter how noble and sincere. And that took place in the early days of Bankole assumption to power.

Dwindling image: At a press conference addressed by Dino Melaye and West Idahosa, both notable members of the House, on the eve of the failed attempt to remove the chief whip of the  Reps,  Emeka Ihedioha, and  the House Leader, Tunde Akogun, last July, Idahosa, who was the chairman, House Committee on Petroleum Resources opened a slit for reporters, covering  the House to take a peep into the storm waiting for Bankole  to brave over.

Idahosa, a well  respected Reps who has been there since 1999, said this at  the briefing: “I have served under six speakers since  coming to the House of Representatives in 1999,  and we have had  image  problem with the  public, But,  today, our perception  index is zero.

“We wish to apologise to the Nigerian people on the style of leadership  that the House of Representatives has today. We are now  serious about giving back the House the integrity and respect it deserves. We are now going  to build a new House, based on strong moral strength, not this kind of House that is the boot of unkind, cruel cartoons.” Asked if the speaker  was also a target,  Idahosa said, “We are not dealing with that now. That  situation has not arisen. We just want Nigerians to watch how we are going to remove the areas of complaint in the House for now. And  these two principal officers  must go tomorrow (June 23, 2009)”.

Principal officers

At that time, it was alleged that at least 250 members  had signed for the removal of the two principal officers, just for the table to turn over on Melaye and his  colleagues the following day. It was said that on  the night of the eve of the “coup”, the speaker had  personally reached out to members and begged them to sheath  their swords.  The two embattled principal officers were equally  asked to go and “see” members that night. With that  done, Dino and his men were left alone. And the plot  failed.

Opposition not  in 10:0 defeat now a myth

Ogunewe was one of the alleged architects of the plot to remove  Bankole over the N2.3 billion car scam which the speaker  scaled through. On February 26, 2009 after displaying what members agreed was rudeness to the speaker at that day’s plenary session, he was suspended summarily with not even a single voice of dissent.

But when the motion to suspend Dino was moved by Emmanuel Jime (PDP/Benue) on June 23,  the House erupted. Those in support and those against the  motion took on each other, until a compromise was reached, which led to  Dino’s apology. The implication of  that could be that the “enemies” of the leadership were  regrouping.

It is was then established by many that  there was a crack within the ranks of the Reps. Observers also posited that though it was decisive victory for the leadership of the House, the Dino incident was just another bullet in the arsenal of those waiting to unseat the  leadership.

The defeat of the opposition, it appeared, was not a 10:0 win. But, today, it is very hard to imagine that another conspiracy to unseat the leadership of the House, will work based on the almost cult figure that  Bankole seemed to have carved for himself among his  colleagues.

 

 

Luka Binniyat

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Accelerating Gender Parity In Nigeria

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In virtually all societies, women are in an inferior position to men. Sex or gender determines  more rights and dignity for men in legal, social and cultural situations, These are reflected on unequal access to or enjoyment of rights in favour of men.
There are also the assumption of stereotype social and cultural roles.
In Nigeria, gender inequality has been for decades in spite of modernization and the fact that many females have done better than men in many spheres.
Analysts are convinced that gender inequality is largely influenced by religious and cultural beliefs, as some cultures and religions still hold strongly that women are the weaker vessels created mainly to be home keepers and child bearers.
Analysts are also worried that gender inequality negatively affects status in all areas of life in society, whether public or private, in the family or labour market.
Although the Global Gender Gap Report 2018 by the World Economic Forum (WEF) shows some progress amongst the 149 countries that were indexed, the progress toward closing the gender gap is slow, because it will take 108 years to close the gender gap and another 202 years to achieve parity in the workforce, according to the report.
The report benchmarks the 149 countries on their progress toward gender parity across four dimensions – economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment.
A number of initiatives have been made by corporate organisations and governmental and non-governmental organisations  to address gender imbalance in Nigeria.
One of the latest is the launch of First Women Network  (FWN) by the First Bank of Nigeria Ltd., in commemoration of the 2019 International Women’s Day (IWD).
IWD is celebrated globally every March 8 to recognise social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women.
The celebration is also a call to action for accelerating gender parity.
The global theme for the 2019 celebration is “Think Equal, Build Smart, Innovate for Change” while the theme for the social media campaign is “#BalanceforBetter”.
According to the bank, the FWN initiative is an avenue for career management and mentoring for women to enable them to balance their career with private endeavours.
The aim,  according to the bank, is to address gender gap and increase women representation in its senior and executive levels, as well as encourage women to tap into opportunities and contribute to nation-building.
The bank’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Dr Adesola Adeduntan,  explains that First Women Network is targeted at the banks’ staff and customers, among others.
He believes that women can achieve more if given the necessary strategic support, hoping that the initiative
will increase the bank’s productivity and profitability.
Adeduntan notes that the initiative is  also a demonstration of First Bank’s adherence to the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Sustainable Development Goals which mandate increased women representation in all banks.
The sustainable goals require that the financial services sector should adopt a quota system to increase women representation on boards to 30 per cent and that of senior management level to 40 per cent by 2014.
Adeduntan is optimistic that the FWN will address six key area –  career management, personal branding, mentoring, welfare, financial planning and empowerment.
He is convinced that the initiative will address gender disparity at the workplace.
“It is commonly agreed that gender parity is an essential factor influencing the advancement of institutions, economies and societies.
“Studies have shown that gender parity in corporations promotes increased performance and returns on investment.
“The need to invest in composite women empowerment and enhance their contributions at senior management levels to achieve organisational goals cannot be over-emphasised,” the CEO says.
For him,  it is paradoxical that the presence of women in paid employments continues to increase, yet the progression of professional women to positions of leadership and management remains slow.
“Gender gaps persist in economic opportunities and political participation in many countries.
“This is part of the reasons for this women network initiative,” he notes.
The chief executive officer wants employers of labour and the entire society to encourage women to advance, excel and contribute optimally in  workplaces and communities.
Mr Abiodun  Famuyiwa, group head, Products and Marketing Support, promises that First Bank  will continue to promote female entrepreneurship for national growth and development.
“We recognise that promoting female entrepreneurship and independence is key to economic viability of every home in the country,” he says.
 According to him, FWN is a further demonstration of the bank’s commitment to women empowerment after the launch  of FirstGem in 2016.
He is satisfied that FirstGem is providing opportunities for women to achieve their financial goals and aspirations through with access to support funds, free business advice, specialised trainings on business development and insight on business development.
For Mr Lampe Omoyele, managing director, Nitro 121, an integrated marketing communications agency,  points out that courage is important in addressing gender imbalance.
“For gender imbalance to be resolved, there has to be courage, vision, values and character,” he says.
He is convinced that women should  have courage and confidence in taking risks within  organisations.
Omoyele advises that women must not play the victims.
“Ultimately, whether you are a female or male, what is going to sustain you is your character and values.
“You need to have values; character is important in the balance that we live to, and it sustains you as you move into the future,” he adds.
The Chief Executive Officer,  Standard  Chartered Bank, Mrs Bola Adesola, wants women to take advantage of FWN to make their lives better.
 She urges women to aspire to grow in their endeavours and refuse be limited because of their gender, stressing that they should use all resources at their disposal to grow.
 For the bank chief, FWN is not a silver bullet to creating the first female chief executive officer of First Bank, but  about opportunity.
“So, it is important that as women, we take advantage of it,” she urges.
 Ms Cecilia Akintomide, independent non-executive director, FBN Holdings Plc, is dissatisfied that Nigeria is still far in gender balancing.
Akintomide says Nigerian  women are still being restricted from working in some places and owning some property.
According to her, restrictions are rendering 50 per cent of Nigeria’s population –  mainly women –  economically unviable.
 A First Bank customer,  Mrs Ifeyinwa Okoye, lauds the FWN, and urges the bank to ensure that its customers – the secondary target of FWN –  benefit from it.
Okoye describes women as critical to economic growth and development but regrets that many women were lagging behind in their endeavours because of gender inequality.
She wants the banks to enlighten its customers on FWN for maximum results.
 “If you empower a woman, you empower a nation.
“Empowering women is especially effective because the benefits are felt throughout the whole community,” she argues.
Analysts call for more strategic support for Nigerian women to  enhance gender parity.


By: Chinyere Joel-Nwokeoma
Joel-Nwokeoma is of the News Agency of Nigeria.

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Covid-19 Vaccination: Role Of Local Leaders

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It was a matter of time, but Covid-19 vaccination has already started to generate heated arguments following a hint that the Federal Government could start sanctioning anybody who refused to be vaccinated.
Dr Faisal Shuaib, Executive Director,  National Primary Health Care Development Agency, NPHCDA, disclosed this at a recent press conference in Abuja. He, however, said that implementation was dependent on availability of the vaccines.
“The Presidential Steering Committee and the Federal Ministry of Health are exploring ways of making vaccines more available to all Nigerians, including federal civil servants and corporate entities.
“Once these vaccines are made equitably available to all Nigerians, then we will need to have a frank discussion about justice, fairness and liberty that exist around vaccine hesitancy.
“So, you have a right to refuse vaccines, but you do not have the right to endanger the health of others,” he said.
Already, attempts have been made by two states – Ondo and Edo – to make Covid-19 vaccination compulsory, especially for public servants and members of the public who wish to gain access to certain places.
These places include religious worship centres, banks and public buildings.
However, those attempts and the suggestion that the Federal Government might sanction those who refuse vaccination have been criticised by some trade, professional and religious associations.
 The Nigeria Medical Association (NMA) and Joint Health Sector Union (JOHESU) that kicked against the compulsory vaccination, said that government should rather embark on advocacy and persuasion, than coerce citizens into getting vaccinated.
The spokesman for JOHESU, Mr Olumide Akintayo, said the policy would only be sensible if there were enough vaccines to inoculate eligible citizens.
Akintayo stated: “If you are thinking of it in terms of responsibility, it makes sense; but practically, we all know it is an impossible task.
“ If all the doses that have been sent to Nigeria since this outbreak is less than 10 million, how do you enforce that kind of policy in a country of over 200 million people?
“You don’t just come up with policies that are not backed by common sense; you don’t just say things because you want to talk. It would have made some sense if the vaccines are available for everyone.”
The General Secretary of the NMA, Philips Ekpe, said citizens could not be forced to be vaccinated against Covid-19 the same way they had the right to reject medical treatment.
Rather than being forced, he said Nigerians should be made to understand the need to be vaccinated. 
According to him, although they cannot be forced, citizens who refuse vaccination should stay in their houses so that they don’t endanger others.
He said: “The Federal Government needs to make people understand the reason why they need to be vaccinated. They have the right to say no. You cannot force people. People have the right to say no to medical treatment.
“But you should let them understand the dangers of not getting vaccinated.
“For example, if you want to travel out of the country, if you are not vaccinated, you will not be let in. The reason is because the other country you are going to won’t want to endanger the lives of its citizens.
“Let them understand the importance, but then if they refuse, they should stay in their houses and not go out and endanger others.”
Experts believe that properly communicating the advantages of being vaccinated, through the use of existing structures, such as religious and cultural institutions, would yield better results than subtle threats.
Communication connotes persuasion, even on occasions when the purpose of a piece of communication is not to persuade, there is still the need to win over the audience to accept the message.
In this era of fake news, and when the social media is awash with conspiracy theories against vaccination, persuasion must first be deployed to get the attention of citizens.
The burden increases tremendously when there are cultural and religious stereotypes which could prevent many adherents from accepting that being vaccinated is safe.
This challenge is not peculiar to Nigeria. In the U.S. for instance, vaccine hesitancy is responsible for over 90 per cent of all Covid-19 related hospitalisation.
Getting some Americans vaccinated has been so challenging that many people have been offered monetary incentives to convince them to get vaccinated in an unusual case of persuasion.
In Nigeria, where religious and traditional leaders are custodians of faith and culture respectively, they wield great influence on devotees and those institutions can be deployed to boost vaccination drive.
Historically, religious and traditional rulers often employ the cognitive process of persuasive communication to change an entrenched social perception or public opinion hindering required public support for relevant people-oriented policies.
Leaders have the influence to subtly appeal to the target to listen, accept, comprehend and act.
Therefore, before considering the stick, government should first explore the use of carrot.
Religious and traditional leaders can help in giving correct messages on vaccination as well as being role models, making sure that they and their loved ones too are vaccinated.
Faith-based and culture-based organisations can also collaborate with other leaders to sensitise communities on the benefits of vaccination and to also dispel the many myths and disinformation about it.
King Bubaraye Dakolo of Epetiama Kingdom in Bayelsa has been putting this practice to use, since vaccination was first rolled out in Nigeria in March.
“The arrival of the vaccine brought a huge relief to our kingdom. I mobilised my people to carry out awareness campaigns in the various communities to guard against apathy.
“My council chiefs and I led by example in being vaccinated early. When the people saw that, they were fully convinced that the vaccine is not harmful.
“We made it clear to our people through town hall meetings that the vaccine is safe and is designed to save humanity.
“We equally reminded them how some persons who refused to be vaccinated for poliomyelitis in the past are suffering the consequences of their actions today,” the traditional ruler said. 
According to the WHO Covid-19 Dashboard, Nigeria had administered 4.4 million Covid-19 vaccine doses as at Aug. 31, 2021. Out of that number, 2.9 million Nigerians have been fully vaccinated, according to the NPHCDA.
With a fairly efficient vaccination structure, owing to many years of immunisation against polio, the Nigerian government should activate collaboration with religious and traditional bodies in its vaccination drive.
Experts, including health professionals and public administrators, believe that involving these leaders in advocacy and public enlightenment will lead to more people accepting to voluntarily get Covid-19 vaccination.
Of course, with just a paltry 0.7 per cent of the population vaccinated, the key indicator for any punitive measure for avoiding vaccination will be subject to availability of the vaccines.
However, to achieve the goal of vaccinating 40 per cent of its 200 million population before the end of 2021 and 70 per cent by the end of 2022, Nigeria will need more than availability of vaccines.
There has to be the acceptance and willingness of the majority of its population to be vaccinated.
One of the crucial and effective way to achieve that is to work with religious and traditional leaders.

By: Kayode Adebiyi

Adebiyi writes for News Agency of Nigeria.

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COVID-19 Vaccination: Role Of Local Leaders

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It was a matter of time, but COVID-19 vaccination has already started to generate heated arguments following a hint that the Federal Government could start sanctioning anybody who refused to be vaccinated.
Dr Faisal Shuaib, Executive Director,  National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), disclosed this at a recent press conference in Abuja. He, however, said that implementation was dependent on availability of the vaccines.
“The Presidential Steering Committee and the Federal Ministry of Health are exploring ways of making vaccines more available to all Nigerians, including federal civil servants and corporate entities.
“Once these vaccines are made equitably available to all Nigerians, then we will need to have a frank discussion about justice, fairness and liberty that exist around vaccine hesitancy.
“So, you have a right to refuse vaccines, but you do not have the right to endanger the health of others,” he said.
Already, attempts have been made by two states – Ondo and Edo – to make COVID-19 vaccination compulsory, especially for public servants and members of the public who wish to gain access to certain places.
These places include religious worship centres, banks and public buildings.
However, those attempts and the suggestion that the Federal Government might sanction those who refuse vaccination have been criticised by some trade, professional and religious associations.
 The Nigeria Medical Association (NMA) and Joint Health Sector Union (JOHESU) that kicked against the compulsory vaccination, said that government should rather embark on advocacy and persuasion, than coerce citizens into getting vaccinated.
The spokesman for JOHESU, Mr Olumide Akintayo, said the policy would only be sensible if there were enough vaccines to inoculate eligible citizens.
Akintayo stated: “If you are thinking of it in terms of responsibility, it makes sense; but practically, we all know it is an impossible task.
“ If all the doses that have been sent to Nigeria since this outbreak is less than 10 million, how do you enforce that kind of policy in a country of over 200 million people?
“You don’t just come up with policies that are not backed by common sense; you don’t just say things because you want to talk. It would have made some sense if the vaccines are available for everyone.”
The General Secretary of the NMA, Philips Ekpe, said citizens could not be forced to be vaccinated against COVID-19 the same way they had the right to reject medical treatment.
Rather than being forced, he said Nigerians should be made to understand the need to be vaccinated. 
According to him, although they cannot be forced, citizens who refuse vaccination should stay in their houses so that they don’t endanger others.
He said: “The Federal Government needs to make people understand the reason why they need to be vaccinated. They have the right to say no. You cannot force people. People have the right to say no to medical treatment.
“But you should let them understand the dangers of not getting vaccinated.
“For example, if you want to travel out of the country, if you are not vaccinated, you will not be let in. The reason is because the other country you are going to won’t want to endanger the lives of its citizens.
“Let them understand the importance, but then if they refuse, they should stay in their houses and not go out and endanger others.”
Experts believe that properly communicating the advantages of being vaccinated, through the use of existing structures, such as religious and cultural institutions, would yield better results than subtle threats.
Communication connotes persuasion, even on occasions when the purpose of a piece of communication is not to persuade, there is still the need to win over the audience to accept the message.
In this era of fake news, and when the social media is awash with conspiracy theories against vaccination, persuasion must first be deployed to get the attention of citizens.
The burden increases tremendously when there are cultural and religious stereotypes which could prevent many adherents from accepting that being vaccinated is safe.
This challenge is not peculiar to Nigeria. In the U.S. for instance, vaccine hesitancy is responsible for over 90 per cent of all COVID-19 related hospitalisation.
Getting some Americans vaccinated has been so challenging that many people have been offered monetary incentives to convince them to get vaccinated in an unusual case of persuasion.
In Nigeria, where religious and traditional leaders are custodians of faith and culture respectively, they wield great influence on devotees and those institutions can be deployed to boost vaccination drive.
Historically, religious and traditional rulers often employ the cognitive process of persuasive communication to change an entrenched social perception or public opinion hindering required public support for relevant people-oriented policies.
Leaders have the influence to subtly appeal to the target to listen, accept, comprehend and act.
Therefore, before considering the stick, government should first explore the use of carrot.
Religious and traditional leaders can help in giving correct messages on vaccination as well as being role models, making sure that they and their loved ones too are vaccinated.
Faith-based and culture-based organisations can also collaborate with other leaders to sensitise communities on the benefits of vaccination and to also dispel the many myths and disinformation about it.
King Bubaraye Dakolo of Epetiama Kingdom in Bayelsa has been putting this practice to use, since vaccination was first rolled out in Nigeria in March.
“The arrival of the vaccine brought a huge relief to our kingdom. I mobilised my people to carry out awareness campaigns in the various communities to guard against apathy.
“My council chiefs and I led by example in being vaccinated early. When the people saw that, they were fully convinced that the vaccine is not harmful.
“We made it clear to our people through town hall meetings that the vaccine is safe and is designed to save humanity.
“We equally reminded them how some persons who refused to be vaccinated for poliomyelitis in the past are suffering the consequences of their actions today,” the traditional ruler said. 
According to the WHO COVID-19 Dashboard, Nigeria had administered 4.4 million COVID-19 vaccine doses as at Aug. 31, 2021. Out of that number, 2.9 million Nigerians have been fully vaccinated, according to the NPHCDA.
With a fairly efficient vaccination structure, owing to many years of immunisation against polio, the Nigerian government should activate collaboration with religious and traditional bodies in its vaccination drive.
Experts, including health professionals and public administrators, believe that involving these leaders in advocacy and public enlightenment will lead to more people accepting to voluntarily get COVID-19 vaccination.
Of course, with just a paltry 0.7 per cent of the population vaccinated, the key indicator for any punitive measure for avoiding vaccination will be subject to availability of the vaccines.
However, to achieve the goal of vaccinating 40 per cent of its 200 million population before the end of 2021 and 70 per cent by the end of 2022, Nigeria will need more than availability of vaccines.
There has to be the acceptance and willingness of the majority of its population to be vaccinated.
One of the crucial and effective way to achieve that is to work with religious and traditional leaders.

By: Kayode Adebiyi
Adebiyi writes for News Agency of Nigeria.

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