Abuja-based Hajia Ameena Hassana Sani and Hajia Hadiza Hussaina are identical twin sisters with a difference.
They look so remarkably alike that telling them apart has been one big task for everyone who comes across, including their parents, since they were born more than 50 years ago.
According to experts, identical twins represent a real torture test for biometrics. This holds true in the lives of the two sisters whose fingerprints have also confused data capture machines over the years.
As if that is not enough, they exhibit certain physiological and personality traits that sometimes make them seem like two computer monitors connected to one central processing unit.
For instance, one would start a sentence and the other would finish it, or both would start the same sentence at the same time with the same choice of words and all the mannerisms and gestures that follow.
“This thing is in the psyche,’’ Ameena said, “even we can’t explain it. I may be thinking of asking her a question regarding what I am thinking, and she will just give me the answer before I let it out.
“And I would yell
stop entering my brain, you know, stop reading my mind. These are the things that happen to us,’’ she said. “It is telepathic!’’ Hadiza added. Sharing their amazing story, the Sani twins recalled how, on a particular day, they confounded their foster mother when they inadvertently dressed exactly the same way at different locations. Hadiza narrated: “There was this time I was here in Abuja and my sister was in Lagos. We were to go to Kaduna. “So, that Friday morning I left Abuja, and arrived in Kaduna by road, while my sister boarded her flight from Lagos. I met Mama in her living room and after the usual greetings; she said she needed to make salad, but that she forgot to buy a certain vegetable. “I said no problem, I would go, and then I left. About 30 minutes later, my sister arrived home from the airport and met mama in the living room. “The old woman started ranting,what is wrong with you?! It is almost time to serve the salad, and you have not gone to buy the vegetable. What are you waiting for?’
“My sister said,
hellooo, excuse me mama, what vegetables?’ The woman looked at her with surprise and said,are you going senile at your early age? You and I just finished talking about buying vegetable for salad. What are you waiting for? Go and buy it!
mama, I am just coming in from the airport’. The old woman exclaimed,La illah, illah lah!’
“Mama stepped back, and looking more closely she said,
What! Do you know your sister is dressed exactly the same way, up to earrings?! It was amazing.’’Both mom and daughter burst out laughing. Till date, the twins cannot explain why they both have crooked baby fingers pointing in the same direction, or why they unconsciously interlock their fingers while walking. Another surprise: they share and swap illnesses. While Ameena is prone to stomach upsets, her twin sister is often down with backaches. “At some point, we interchange the ailments. And my sister would saygive me back my backache and take your stomach upset’.
“We started wondering why. Up till now, we don’t know why,’’ Ameena said.
During the interview for this article, the writer observed that Hadiza, the younger twin by minutes, is taller than her sister.
When this was pointed out to them, Ameena said anatomical variation is something they also constantly swap between them. It is either one gets taller today and shorter tomorrow or they level up.
Perhaps, the weirdest thing about the Sani twins is their fingerprints, which seem to be identical as well.
Indications to this effect emerged during their biometric capturing for voter registration in 2011, the National Identity Number (NIN) and the Bank Verification Number (BVN). On each occasion, Ameena’s registration failed, while her sister’s sailed through.
Hadiza said: “The first time we were captured was in 2011 during voter registration. Since we were both in Kaduna, we decided to register there. We went for capturing and when the list came out, my name was there in our ward, but hers was missing.
“We made enquiries and eventually got someone to inform Attahiru Jega (then Chairman of the Independent National Electoral Commission) that there seemed to be a problem with the capturing of twins, particularly identical twins. I think they didn’t take us seriously. We thought the belief then in INEC was that no two persons could have similar fingerprints.
“Then we both came to Abuja to capture for the National Identity Number. We both did it at Radio House; I sat in front of one system, she sat in front of another. We were captured and given our slips. The list came out, but only mine was there.’’
Ameena added: “I think it was due to the alphabets. Her name starts with H, mine A. So, the first alphabet that comes in gets knocked off. We then started making enquiries and making a case not just in voter registration but also in National ID.
“Then we also experienced a similar problem with BVN. We operate in the same bank, but different accounts. It was a tug of war. Each time we went to the bank they would say problem with our BVN.
“So, finally we said we wanted to speak to the person in charge at CBN. We had to explain to the lady that we were two persons, not one. Eventually, our bank had to make a case to CBN that we were a peculiar set of twins. That eventually got that sorted. These are some of the strange things we experience.’’
Born in Sokoto to a Hausa-Fulani father and a Yoruba mother, Ameena and Hadiza who have been inseparable since birth, attended the same primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
It was difficult for their parents to separate them due to a combination of the fear of losing them and the traditional superstitions about twins.
They were born on 1 September 1965, into a family with a history of non-survival of twins. Considering their traditional backgrounds, their parents and relatives believed there were some rituals that had to be done to make them survive.
“ And then they noticed something: if one ran temperature, say around noon on a day, by evening the other will also run temperature.
“That strengthened their belief that twins had some spiritual powers, and those things guided the way they treated us, and the decision to keep us together,’’ Hadiza explained.
With keeping them together came the big challenge of identifying them. Even their parents couldn’t tell them apart. As a way out, they had to be tagged with wrist bands in different colours (blue for Ameena and red for Hadiza).
Hadiza recalled some instances where she took advantage of the confusion to escape punishment for offences committed both at home and in secondary school where they were initially placed in the same class.
“While in secondary school (FGC Sokoto), I used to be like a tomboy, very brazen, I didn’t have a lot of fears. I got into a lot of fights with boys. I fought a boy, the teacher came and broke it up, but the boy decided to report to the principal, who sent for me.
“I went and narrated my version. He warned me against fighting next time. I left thinking up how to get back at the guy for reporting me. So, I put some dead insects in his plate, including one that was not quite dead, because he had phobia for insects.
“The boy knew it was me, so he came and attacked me. I fought him, fell him to the ground and he went to report me again. From that point on I had made up my mind that the principal and I would not see again.
“The principal kept asking for me and finally he went to Ameena and threatened to punish her. But my sister started crying, insisting she didn’t know what the man was talking about. The teacher intervened and said it was possible because we were identical twins, and that it could be that my twin was responsible.
The similarity also reflects in their career choice, which has led them both to the media world. While Ameena currently heads the multi-media unit of the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN), Hadiza is with the Voice of Nigeria (VON), both parastatals under the Federal Ministry of Information and Culture.
It all started at Model Primary School, Sokoto, where they were both in the debate club. Endowed with tellingly sharp tongues and quick minds, the girls were always found arguing about issues and driving home their points.
Their late uncle, who was then working at a television station, decided it was time to take it to the next level. The station had just started a children’s debate on television.
“ We went for the first session and the production was wow’’, Hadiza said. “A lot of people started asking for more. At the end of the day it became a routine thing.
“As we grew older, it stuck. Our father wanted us to study what was termed more serious arts like Law, Political Science, Public Administration, but we insisted we wanted to study performing arts, and got our way.’’
That dream took them to the University of Ilorin where they secured admission to study performing arts. Also faced with the challenge of telling them apart, the department later placed them in different units: Ameena in Music and Hadiza in Drama, the twins recalled.
But before then, they had got married after secondary school, with kids: Ameena has three, while Hadiza is blessed with two.
For the Sani twins, breaking up to get married to different men was like taking fish out of water. The bond between them was obviously much stronger than that of marriage.
So, when Ameena’s husband came for her hand in marriage, expectedly Hadiza did not like either the man or the idea of her sister leaving her.
“But I had decided I was OK with him”, the older twin said. “Initially, my sister was like, ‘ it’s ok, take her away. You want to go with him? Ok, fine leave me and go with him’.
“As soon as she also got married, it kind of doused that a bit. But new things came up. We discovered we preferred each other’s company to other persons’.
“My husband found it odd that I wanted to spend more time with my sister. It goes beyond what we could explain.”
Hadiza was also more drawn to her twin sister. Thus it was not difficult for them to divorce their husbands just to be together.
Divorce also provided the needed space for them to return to school. Ameena said, “In our society then, when you finished secondary school that was the highest level of education that was expected of women.
“Although, there were exceptions, about married women who had first degrees and even above at that time too, they were very few and far between.
“But gradually the society embraced girlchild education to whatever level. Some of us had to fight the battle too.
“We decided that since the kids were already there and growing, we needed to further our education. We took that decision and went.”
Interestingly, the Sani twins quarrel a lot, yet they refuse to be separated. They said the quarrels were usually over mundane and petty things as siblings would naturally do, but theirs were even more petty.
Arubu writes for the News Agency of Nigeria.
Towards Improved Children Protection Services
According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), abuse or violence in all its forms is a daily reality for many Nigerian children and only a fraction ever receive help.
The National Child Welfare Policy of 1989 defines a child in Nigeria as anybody who is 12 years or below; however, a draft decree put into law now sets the age of the child in Nigeria as 18 years or below.
Violence Against Children (VAC) is defined as constituting all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence, exploitation or for commercial purposes of which result poses harm to a child’s health, survival or development.
It takes different forms, including physical, psychological and sexual; often times, it also takes the shape of disciplinary measures. In recent times, children are even used as human bombs and in any combat or non-combat roles in the conflict in north-east Nigeria.
Studies also show that six out of every 10 children experience some form of violence, one in four girls and 10 per cent of boys have been victims of sexual violence. Often times, the children who reported violence receive little or no form of support. In all of these, the physical, mental, social and even economic burden of VAC is enormous.
Identifying the huge consequences of VAC, world leaders in 2015 made a commitment to end all forms of violence against children by 2030, as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
In Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari launched the same campaign tagged “End Violence Against Children by 2030,’’ on Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016.
Following the launch and with increasing incidence of different forms of VAC, including rape, trafficking, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C), there have also been various clamours to end VAC in the country, of which requires a holistic approach.
A study by UNICEF, the first of its kind in Nigeria, shows that about half of Nigerian children reported some form of physical violence by a parent, adult relative, community member or intimate partner prior to attaining the age of 18.
The studies, “A Financial Benchmark for Child Protection, Nigeria Study, Volume 1’’ and “The Economic Burden of Violence Against Children’’ were based on data gathered from 2014 to 2016 and the survey done in 2018.
The study on the Economic burden of VAC, reveals the cumulative loss of earnings as a result of productivity losses across diûerent types of violence against children to be N967 billion ($6.1 billion), accounting for 1.07 per cent of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
This amplifies the urgency to act on reducing or outright stopping of VAC. However, achieving this will involve increasing efforts on Child Protection Services; efforts that will include awareness on prevention strategies, the implications of VAC and the consequent penalties as even cheaper options.
Ms Juliane Koenlg of UNICEF, Abuja, said that the most important thing is still to increase the awareness on the prevalence of violence against children in Nigeria which is high.
“It is a huge problem, especially on its impact on health and economy in Nigeria; the child needs protection. “If we look at child protection services, we are looking at preventive.’’
“It also has consequences on the educational attainment which we have seen in economic growth productivity loss due this consequence.
“Nearly N1 billion is lost due to creativity loss, while N1.4 trillion is lost to VAC.’’
A child rights advocate, Ms Ifeoma Ibe, says governments must be committed to reducing VAC in Nigeria.
According to her, at the economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) First Ladies Forum in October 2017, the 15 member states, of which Nigeria is among, agreed to adopt a range of measures to protect children from violence, abuse and exploitation.
“We must strengthen our national child protection systems to prevent and respond to violence, abuse and exploitation against children.”
Lending her voice, Rachel Harvey, Regional Adviser of Child Protection, UNICEF, had at the launch of the campaign to end VAC by 2030 in 2016, said that the Federal Government must adopt proactive measures against violence through quality services.
According to her, child protection services must be staffed by trained professionals to help children recover from their experiences.
“Also, perpetrators should be held accountable for their actions by strengthening the capacity of the justice sector. Children and the general public must know that violence against children is unacceptable and know where to seek help when they become victims,’’ she said.
Shedding more light on the problem, Harvey said: “The Nigeria Violence Against Children Survey found that adults who have suffered violence as children, are much more likely to perpetrate intimate partner violence.
“Failure to end VAC also impacts the country as a whole; it leads to substantial economic losses and constrains development. Ending VAC has been linked to sustainable growth not only by the international community, but through the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals.
According to her, it involves religious leaders, NGOs and the media as they have fundamental role in breaking the culture of silence on violence that children suffered.
Aside from the efforts of governments and what the laws stipulate, many stakeholders believe that VAC can be stemmed right from the homes.
This is especially as the National Child Welfare Policy of 1989 specifies that “parents and the society at large, are under an obligation to provide their children with proper education and to protect them from exploitation arising from early marriage, employment and their negative influence that infringe on their rights’’.
A child protection specialist with UNICEF, Mrs Sharon Oladiji, agrees that Nigeria has many laws protecting children in the country, but the laws are not adequately implemented.
She calls for the creation of family courts vested with jurisdiction to hear cases that would help protect the child and prevent trafficking.
“We have good laws, but what we have suffered is implementation; government should also provide the establishment of voluntary homes to take care of children that are suffering,’’ she said.
She tasked parents on their responsibilities of proper upbringing of children in order to reduce the rate of child rights violation in Nigeria.
“If a child is well brought up, issues of molestation and abuse will not occur. “When you raise a child well he goes out to become a good person, when a child has problems in the home he goes out and demonstrates it,’’ she says.
Also, Mrs Eliana Martins, of the Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA) Nigeria, Lagos State branch, believes that parents have critical roles in reducing VAC through the proper upbringing of their children and wards.
“Instilling good morals in the upbringing of children will help to mould a child’s personality for a more responsible adulthood. If you teach your children good values, definitely they will imbibe these values as they grow up and the women, especially have to rise up to this task.
Mr Denis Onoise, a child protection specialist, UNICEF, reiterated the need for “Call to Action’’ by governments and stakeholders to add child protection budget line to national chart of accounts.
He said that based on studies, currently, only 14 per cent of child protection expenditure in Nigeria was devoted to critical prevention services.
According to him, there is also need to formalise an End VAC National Act Plan and establish VAC helpline.
“These will improve the delivery of child protection services across the country,’’ Onoise said.
Ihechu is of the News Agency of Nigeria.
Insecurity, Traditional Rulers And Community Policing
The hue and cry about insecurity in Nigeria reached an alarming crescendo when the daughter of Afenifere’s leader, Reuben Fasoranti, Olufunke Olakunrin was killed by suspected herdsmen at Ore junction, Ondo State on July 12.
The ensuing reactions were charged, emotional and combustible.
President Muhammadu Buhari swiftly offered a soothing response; he directly commiserated with Fasoranti and reassured Nigerians of Federal Government’s commitment to the protection of lives and property.
In the aftermath of Olakunrin’s death, alongside other incidents of killings, the Pan-Yoruba socio-political organisation, Afenifere, ordered killer herdsmen to leave South-West now or face serious confrontation. The organisation said that a lot of people had been killed due to the activities of killer herdsmen between 2015 and 2019.
An Afenifere chieftain, Chief Ayo Adebanjo, said the quit order was because of the killing of Olakunrin.
Determined to assuage feelings and find lasting solutions to the reoccurring security challenges, Buhari directed the Vice President, Prof. Yemi Osinbajo, to confer with traditional rulers and get their input vis- a-vis adopting community policing.
Consequently, on July 20, Osinbajo held separate consultations with the Akarigbo of Remoland, Oba Babatunde Ajayi, and the Awujale of Ijebu Kingdom, Oba Sikiru Adetona, all Ogun monarchs.
Osinbajo was accompanied to Ajayi’s palace by Governor Dapo Abiodun of Ogun.
“As you know, there are many significant security concerns all over the country, and there are concerns also in the South-West. So, I am here on the instruction of the president to consult with the traditional ruler, the governor and others on what to do to beef up security and to generally improve the security architecture.
“Of course, you know that Kabiyesi is not just a traditional ruler, but a very important part of the government. That is why we are here; to talk to him and agree on few modalities for beefing up security; and ensuring that we are fully conscious of all that is going on, just to be sure that peace and security reigns here and across the country.’’
Osinbajo expressed optimism that by God’s grace, Nigeria would overcome all its problems and set itself on the path of peace and prosperity. The vice president, who also visited the palace of the Awujale of Sagamu, said the monarch was one of the most important voices in the South-West.
He said they had discussed on the important steps to take in order to improve the security architecture generally. According to him, the monarch has given a lot of insight; his own views, on what needs to be done, how to go about it, and what has been done already.
“But very importantly, he showed his commitment to ensure that there is peace and security, and that everybody lives in peace with one another and maintains the highest level of security.
“We are consulting with many of the traditional rulers across the country, but there are concerns in the South-West now. The president has spoken about the role of traditional rulers in maintaining peace and security in their own localities. As we know, they are the closest to the grassroots; the closest to their communities.
“One of the critical things we expect from our community policing efforts is some integration between the traditional rulers, the community and the police; and efforts they are making to improve intelligence; and we need to understand what is going on.
“We need to know who is where, and what exactly is happening all around, so they can be transmitted to the more formal security agencies, such as the police and the army, depending on where and what the situation is,” he said.
In the same vein, Osinbajo, on July 23, met with Osun monarchs at Osun Government House, Osogbo. The vice president, after the meeting, said that community policing was one of the methods that may be adopted to improve security.
In his contribution, Osun Governor, Gboyega Oyetola, who was represented by his Deputy, Mr Benedict Alabi, applauded the Federal Government’s efforts in nipping the security challenges in the state in the bud.
“On behalf of the government and people of the state, we appreciate President Buhari’s administration for being pro-active and for showing interest in the security of our people in the state and in the South-West,’’ he said.
Buhari also held a consultative meeting with South-West Obas on July 31 at the Presidential Villa. Buhari said that the vice president had already begun consultations with some Obas and he had been receiving feedbacks and observations.
He said that the consultations were important because traditional rulers formed a critical part of governance structures, especially in their respective communities, where they felt the pulse of the people being the closest to the populace.
The president said that the dynamics for safeguarding security kept changing and stressed the need to adopt modern, technological and people-centred methods in achieving the goals. Buhari said that as the traditional authorities in their communities, government and the security agencies would be relying on them to monitor the communities. The president also announced other measures government intended to adopt to tackle security challenges.
“Some of these interventions include an expedited commencement of community policing, a robust revamping of police intelligence gathering capacity and the significant boosting of the number of security personnel in our local communities.
“This, in specific terms, will include recruiting a lot more police officers and doing so right from their local government areas, where they would then be stationed in the best practice of community policing.
“Working with the state governments also, we intend to beef up the equipping of the police force with advanced technology and equipment that can facilitate the work of the security agencies.
“I will be issuing directives to the appropriate federal authorities to speedily approve licensing for states requesting the use of drones to monitor forests and other criminal hideouts.
“We also intend to install CCTVs on highways and other strategic locations, so that activities in some of these hidden places can be exposed, more effectively monitored and open to actionable review.
“ We will equally continue to bring in our military when needed to complement the work of the police, including possible deployment of troops on certain highways on a temporary basis, and the use of the Air Force assets to bomb hideouts where criminals are located,’’ he said.
On his part, the Ooni of Ife, Oba Adeyeye Ogunwusi, who spoke on behalf of the Obas, said that the president had agreed to fast-track the monitoring of the forests in the region with the use of technology such as drones. He said that policemen and officers would be recruited among people born and living in the various communities in the region.
“We can use that strategy to avert tension going on now in the South-West,” he said.
Deserving no less attention was the recent kidnap of a pastor of the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG) and four others, along Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, and the killing of a Catholic priest, Rev. Fr. Paul Offu along Ihe-Agbudu Road in Awgu Local Government Area of Enugu State. The incidences, among others, buttress the call for drastic and effective measures to be adopted to tackle insecurity across the country.
Undoubtedly, bringing traditional rulers into the security architecture will enhance intelligence gathering and effective community policing that will reasonably address the nation’s security concerns.
Okoronkwo, writes for the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN).
Boosting Nigeria’s Cassava Competitiveness
The Presidential Initiative on Cassava, launched in 2003 during the administration of former President Olusegun Obasanjo, was designed to promote cassava as a viable foreign exchange earner for Nigeria.
Then President Goodluck Jonathan sustained the programme by launching the cassava flour initiative. The progamme was meant to bring to the fore, the potential of cassava cultivation and to encourage Nigerians to consume cassava bread made from cassava flour.
The initiative was commended as it would help reduce the cost of bread, because of the high cost of wheat, as Nigerians currently cherished and consumed bread made of wheat. Stakeholders are worried that cassava bread is yet to become popular, while the desired production level of cassava is yet to be achieved.
They blamed the development on poor attitude of farmers to cassava cultivation and lack of technology and the needed infrastructure to churn out cassava flour and called for viable policy to strengthen cassava cultivation and processing to encourage farmers to cultivate cassava.
Cassava Compact Leader, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Mr Adebayo Abbas, who spoke on the need to strengthen cassava policy, stated that cassava remains one of the most consumed food crops in Africa. According to him, the potential market for cassava products is large and growing.
Abbas stated that Nigeria is the highest cassava producer in the world, producing a third more than Brazil and almost double the production capacity of Thailand and Indonesia.
He stated that cassava had been recognised to become agro-industrialised across the African continent to achieve key poverty reduction and economic growth target.
According to him, Africa imports annually about 50 million tons of food, such as rice, wheat, maize and sugar, worth over 35 billion dollars and such food imports have been projected to increase to nearly 100 billion dollars by 2025. He said such increase in food imports is a risk to the balance of trade for most African countries and it also represents a unique opportunity for crops such as cassava.
“Cassava grows well in the continent because it can replace up to 80 per cent of our food imports, especially in processed forms such as flour, native and modified starches, sweeteners and beverages,” he said.
Abbas stated that for cassava to become an important carbohydrates source in Africa, the triangle of productivity, processing and rural infrastructure must be met. According to him, farmers must have access to technologies to raise cassava productivity from the current 10 to 15 million tons per hectare in many African countries to 20 to 25 million tons.
Abbas said that incentives for investment in processing would be achieved through the development of robust supply chains and government’s policies that reduce transaction costs for processed cassava. He noted that rural infrastructure is as important in cassava farming as technology or investment in cassava processing.
The National President, Nigeria Cassava Growers Association (NCGA), Mr Segun Adewumi, called on the Federal Government to review cassava policy in order for the commodity’s value chain to penetrate the international market. To him, the cassava industry has gone beyond growing for consumption and if properly harnessed would generate huge foreign exchange.
He stated that the government and other stakeholders must cooperate to ensure that Nigeria’s cassava penetrate the international market. Adewumi said that many players are interested in cassava farming but the environment has not been conducive, especially the issue of price.
The Chief Executive Officer, Psaltery International Company, Mrs Yemisi Iranloye, also called on the government to promote the cassava business, through the review of government’s cassava policy to meet international standards. Iranloye stated that the present cassava policy for starch and cassava flour have been there since 2005.
She said that the policy had not been reviewed, noting that the last policy was made when there were not many players buying cassava products in Nigeria and there was no standard in the cassava business. According to her, the policy had been in place when there were no big processors, stressing that there was need to review the cassava policy.
She added that just as the review of cocoa, palm oil and other farm commodities’ policies, cassava is now used to produce food grade starch sold to breweries, packaging and confectionary industries. Iranloye said that the starch industry had a lot of challenges, adding that it must be encouraged in order to compete in the international market.
“Most times, when there is price drop in the international market, the multinationals often expect the price to also drop in Nigeria.’’
She, however, noted that the case is not always the same when the price goes up in the international market, but negotiation is however ongoing to get to the desired destination.
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dr Muhammed Umar, said that the Federal Government raised the production of cassava from 36.8 million MT in 2013 to 54 million MT, and also developed efficient value-added chains for high quality cassava flour.
He said that the ministry was working with a Malaysian firm to establish one cassava starch processing plant of one ton per hour capacity in each of the six geo-political zones. This, according to him, will complement the 2-3 tonnes per day plant earlier established.
“Also, in the current fiscal year, provision has been made to equip Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), with tissue culture laboratory with modern equipment to enhance rapid provision of quality and disease resistant cassava planting materials,” he said.
As requested by players in the cassava business, the Federal Government should strengthen its cassava policies to enable the country generate reasonable foreign exchange from export of cassava products.
Ogunshola and Olaifa write for News Agency of Nigeria.
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