The boundaries of many
African and Asian States were drawn and inherited from the old colonial era. A great deal of these boundaries were superimposed on the land, with little regard for the culturally coherent groups of people living there. Once they regained their independence, those people inherited these peculiar boundaries.
Nigeria is a typical illustration of the loose correspondence between nation and sate that exists in much of Africa today. In the Middle East, Turkey, Iraq and Iran are home to parts of the Kurdish people, who are a minority in each of these countries and have made attempts to break away and form their own unified states. India includes fifteen official linguistic groups, among other former colonies that exhibited similar mismatches of state and nation.
With the growth of nationalism, it is now thought a right of people, if they feel that they have a common nationality, to have a state to match that nationality, especially when the minority in the country feels marginalised. The ‘right’ has become a constant source of political tension and conflict for two reasons. First, many state boundaries do not coincide with the geographic distribution of nation while the second is that the sense of nationhood is a subjective thing.
A ‘feeling’ on the part of a group of people may be stimulated or laid to rest by persuasive leaders and is therefore liable to change. Even if state boundaries could ever at any time be brought into a perfect fit with the distribution of nations, this benign or gentle situation could not last, because new nations would gradually emerge and some old ones would fade and be forgotten.
Another example is the small black nationalist movement in the United States of America, which attempted to arouse a ‘nation’ (the nation of blacks) among a people who had not generally thought of themselves as a separate nation. One good example is Belgium, where the French and Dutch-speaking regions of the state co-existed without much notice for a long time but then became agitated about their separate nationalities in the 1970s. Today, they operate with such autonomy that they have almost become separate states within the state of Belgium.
At any given time then, the system of states will not coincide with the system of nations. Points at which state and nation fail to coincide are likely to be hot spots politically. Indeed, many of the most intense political struggles in the present era have resulted from such situations. The movement to separate Quebec from the rest of Canada; the war between East and West Pakistan, which resulted in the formation of a new state, Bangladesh; the Basque nationalist movement in Spain; the conflict between French and Dutch – speaking Belgians, the activities of the Palestine Liberation Organisation, which embodies the desire of Palestinians for a state of their own, the chronic unrest among Kurds in Iraq, Iran and Turkey; the attempt by Chechnya region to secede from Russia; above all, the bloody ethnic wars of the 1990s in Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, and the civil war in Nigeria in 1967 – these are only a few examples of hot political conflicts occasioned by a display between state boundaries and people’s sense of nationhood.
One striking, and sometimes disturbing reality about the modern state is the way it has been able to enlist its people in its cause. Citizens of a state generally identify themselves strongly with it and will defend it with passion. This passionate identification with a nation or with a state riding on the coattails of nation is called nationalism, and like any other passion, it can make people either noble or base. Some have performed it by great acts of courage and self-sacrifice under the influence of this sentiment, and others have carried out cowardly assassinations and brutal massacres under the same influence. Whether it makes people noble or ignoble, nationalism is undeniably convenient for governments. This is because it predisposes a large and varied population to obey the single government of the state or nation.
And if the nation is attacked, nationalist passion makes the defending soldiers a more formidable force than they would otherwise be. Therefore, all governments try to encourage nationalism – not necessarily a hate of others, but at least a national pride by holding parades, using national symbols such as the flag, presenting the state’s history to school children and so on.
The agitation of a Biafran nation out of Nigeria is not a peculiar move and it has been a long-standing one, which triggered a bloody civil war between 1967 and 1970. Nigeria is a populous country or state on the West Coast of Africa, with a population of about 170 million, One out of five Africans lives in Nigeria, including people from the Western world, and its gross national product is second on the continent only to that of South Africa. The country is rich in oil and gas, but it has so many people to feed that the average Nigerian is not especially well off.
Until 1960, Nigeria was a British colony and like most colonies, it was not constructed for internal coherence but rather for the administrative convenience of the British. Over 250 different languages and dialects are spoken within its boarders and there is also an important religious, split, as the north is primarily Muslim and the south primarily christain. After the World War II, Britain experimented with various ways of handling this diversity, and the plan adopted was a decentralized system under which Nigeria was divided into three regions, vis, the Northern region based on the Hausa – Fulani, the Western region, made up of the Yorubas and the Eastern region, based on the Ibos. These regions were administratively distinct, each having its own budget.
This arrangement continued in the initial democratic structure set up in 1960. The federal government at that time left many functions under the control of the regional governments in what is called a federal system. This situation was unstable, however, because tensions soon developed among the regions. The democratic procedures that were written into Nigeria’s constitution favoured the north, because it was the most populous region and the north quickly established political control under the first prime minister, a northern Muslim, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.
Tribal sniping is common in Nigeria, which is why Nigerian comedians play endlessly on ethnic stereotypes: that Yorubas are noisy, Ibos are miserly, Hausas are dim, and so on, just as Nigeria’s many newspapers are full of columnists who complain that their own tribe has contributed more to the country than any other but never gets its fair portion of pepper soup or national cake. Ordinary Nigerians spend hours mouthing similar complaints. The only time this nation cheers with one voice is when its football team scores.
Ethnic solidarity is used to justify Nigeria’s great vice, corruption. Nigerians almost all say they disapprove of corruption, but they tend to forgive or even applaud the perpetrator if he is one of their own tribe.
For most of the time since independence, Nigeria has been ruled by northern Muslim military strongmen. They and their hangers on grow fabulously wealthy, so with Nigerian politicians of other tribes. Inevitably, one can trace Nigeria’s tribal troubles back to colonial era when the country’s borders were drawn by the British, who, in 1914, lumped the whole mélange or people of different cultures, religions and tribes into a single unit. Nigerians refer to this as “the mistake of 1914,” at which the British were not blind to the rifts within their new colony.
In order to avert religious strife, the British discouraged Christian missionaries from preaching in the Muslim north, but while that seemed wise at that time, it built up problems for the future, as the missionaries were effectively barred from northern Nigeria. The intricacies in the administrative and economic policies of the country after independence, and the influence of the better-educated southerners on literate northerners then stimulated the Hausas and Fulanis of the north to begin a programme of “northernisation” within their own region. The northern regional government allegedly tried to bar southerners from winning public works contracts, running shops, or owning land in the north, a bias that swiftly spread to the federal government, especially the parts controlled by northerners.
A resentment of being discriminated against was one reason a group of mainly Ibo offices in the army tried to mount a coup in 1966. The coup leaders promised, among other things, to establish national norms that all applicants for civil service jobs would have to meet. To the northerners, this sounded like a promise that all the best jobs would go to southerners, for which a group of mainly Hausa-Fulani officers hurriedly led a counter-coup and seized control of the state. The coup by Ibo officers toppled the democratic government and put an Ibo general, Aguiyi Ironsi, at the head of the state, but six months later, Muslim soldiers struck back and a new government under Yakubu Gowon, a northerner but a Christian, was installed.
At this point, the eastern region seceded from Nigeria and proclaimed itself the state of Biafra, but the federal government refused to accept Biafra’s right to secede. This followed a bloody civil war which lasted two and a half years in which over a million people died. The northern-dominated army ferociously put down the rebellion as the Ibos were starved out and had to give up on secession.
Gowon wisely followed a generous, conciliatory policy toward the defeated province and its leaders, one calculated to make it easy for them to rejoin or reunite the rest of the country.
The first presidential election after Gowon and Obasanjo’s military rules was held in 1979 and a northerner, Shehu Shagari was elected. He ruled for four years and was reelected in 1983, but his administration was marked by corruption and economic decay just like his military and civilian successors. Most Nigerians are dismayed by the greed of the political class and their inability to overcome the regional, tribal and religious divisions of the country as well as improve the economy.
Today, the Nigerian economy is in deep distress, oil revenues have declined and the government has failed to invest in developing other sectors of the economy to create jobs for the teeming unemployed youths, while some geo-political zones such as the South-South and South-East are being marginalized. The country is owing vast debts to foreign leaders even as election is not peaceful, free and fair, coupled with inequitable distribution of resources and federal appointments.
Democratic government of this country is hampered by the religious, ethnic and regional divisions between the north and the south. Southerners believe that the Muslim north never allow them to gain power. Babangida, Abacha, Murtala Muhammed and Buhari are northerners; Chief Moshood K. O. Abiola, the winner of the annulled 1993 election who died in jail during the military regime, was from the south. Former president, Olusegun Obasanjo, is from the south but attacked as a turncoat supporter of the north during the election and got few votes in the south. Northerners fear that since the south has the oil and gas and most of the economic activities of the country, they will be left with nothing if they give up political power to the south, or allow them to secede.
By all this reasoning, the Ibos of the south feel that the most effective way to parlay tribal support into political office is to carve out a new state or nation in which one’s own tribe is a majority, hence the agitation or struggle for a state of Biafra. From three regions at independence, Nigeria has fragmented or splintered into thirty-six states today, causing endless complexity. In a situation such as this, it behoves the Federal Government and the agitating groups – the Actualisation of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) and the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) as well as Igbo leaders and South-East governors to strike a compromise via dialogue as regards the release of the detained Director of Radio Biafra, Nnamdi Kanu who had been preaching non-violent action and peace in his broadcasts and programmes. Both government and the groups should tread with caution.
Imperative Of Overhauling Nigeria’s Security Agencies
Recurring terrorists’ killings, banditry, kidnapping, deadly farmer-herder clashes and other related crimes across the country, have, no doubt, reached embarrassing situation. These dastardly incidents have also elicited hue and cry, prayers and suggestions on how to contain the incidents.
Security agencies have upped their ante fighting with tenacity to curb crime and tackle terrorism in various theatres, while President Muhammadu Buhari, has reiterated his administration’s commitment of protecting the lives and property of Nigerians.
Vice President Yemi Osinbajo, recently reassured of government’s commitment to protect lives and property, when he announced that more personnel would be recruited for the nation’s security agencies. He said that more weapons would be acquired to tackle the hydra-headed problem, adding that more would be done to ramp up surveillance and intelligence gathering.
Osinbajo spoke when he hosted clergymen from the northern part of Nigeria, under the aegis of Arewa Pastors’ Forum for Peace. The vice president said the Federal Government was committed towards containing the threats and security concerns in the country. The vice president assured the pastors that the Federal Government was doing everything that needed to be done.
“We are handling security well, and as you know, including military deployment in diverse fields, like the Boko Haram in the North-East. In fact, we have to recruit more into the army, and much faster than we ever did because we need men on the ground and resources to buy more arms, to buy more platforms.
“ At the last meeting of the National Security Council, we had discussions on how to beef up the military’s platforms. How do we beef up the numbers? How do we recruit more men and women into the army? How do we collaborate more with local vigilante, the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) and all that.
“So, there is a lot going on in terms of trying to beef up security; the security situation is one that is very challenging. We are also looking at aspects of surveillance, how we can do more aerial surveillance using drones and electronic devices to improve surveillance,” he said.
Osinbajo assured the clergymen that the Federal Government was also committed to finding lasting solutions to the perennial crisis in communities in the North and other parts of the country, including the ones bothering on religious prejudices. He urged the group to also come up with ideas and thoughts on how to ensure lasting peace in the country.
President of the forum, Bishop Mbayo Japhet, said the group’s visit to the Presidential Villa was to support the administration and the vice president. The bishop described Osinbajo as an apostle of peace.
President Buhari, at the recent inauguration of two Nigeria Air Force Agusta 109 Power Helicopter and Mi-17 E Helicopter at the Eagle Square, Abuja, said the military would be re-professionalised and re-equipped to meet the growing exigencies of security in the country. He assured Nigerians that the promise of ending terrorism would be realised. The president urged the Nigeria Air Force to ensure discipline in their operations, and a strong maintenance culture that would enable the nation to derive maximum benefits from the newly acquired helicopters.
“We promise to re-professionalise and re-equip the armed forces and security agencies to effectively discharge their duties to our nation. Professionalism, capacity building and adequately equipping the armed forces and other security agencies are a major policy thrust of the administration. I have no doubt that the deployment of these Agusta 109P gunships and the M-17E Helicopter would add impetus to the combat efficiency of the Air Force in combating our contemporary security challenges.’’
Buhari said that two earlier inaugurated Agusta 109 Power Helicopter gunships, which were procured from Italy over a year ago, had made impact on the war against terrorism. He commended the support of the governments of Italy and the Russian Federation, and efforts of the Italian and Russian ambassadors to Nigeria, at sustaining the strategic partnership which facilitated this acquisition.
“I want to, once again, salute the resolve of our armed forces and the invaluable contributions of all security agencies for their efforts towards the decimation of Boko Haram. Your contributions in internal security, peace keeping and humanitarian operations in places like The Gambia, Guinea, Mozambique, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Mali, Guinea Bissau and Cameroon have not only been a source of pride to us as a nation, but has also projected us as a reliable regional power.
“During my inaugural speech as President, I promised to put an end to Boko Haram insurgency, kidnapping and other forms of criminalities that have bedevilled our country. You will all agree with me that the successes we have achieved so far, have restored our pride and honour, the world over,’’Buhari said.
The president appreciated Nigerians for their support to the military and other security agencies against terrorism, banditry and kidnapping, adding that the security challenges would be collectively won.
On his part, the Minister of Defence, Bashir Salihi Magashi, said the purchase of the helicopters further demonstrated the administration’s commitment to bringing the security challenges in the country under control.
Sharing a similar sentiment, the Chief of Air Staff, Air Marshal Sadique Abubakar, said the visionary approval to purchase more aircraft for the Air Force since 2015 had impacted positively on the fight against terrorism and other crimes.
“Your excellency’s government has so far procured and inducted 22 aircraft. And the service is expecting 17 additional platforms including 12 x Super Tulcanos from the US,’’ he said.
Inspector General of Police, Mohammed Adamu, recently ordered the deployment of aerial surveillance helicopters to major cities in the South-West and North-West. He said that the Police air wing operational base in Abuja, would cater for Abuja–Kaduna highways and the adjoining states in the North-West and North-Central.
The National Assembly, on its part, strongly agreed on the urgency of boosting the capacity of Nigeria’s security agencies to enable them tackle the security challenges. The leadership of the National Assembly recently met with President Buhari over the security issues in the country and other matters of governance. Speaking afterwards, Senate President, Ahmed Lawan, said that there was need to provide solution on how to tackle the security challenges in the intermediate and the long term.
“We should be able to come up with some strategies, the road map to ensure that we secure the lives and properties of Nigerians. We believe that it is imperative that we are able to provide those necessary equipment and welfare for the armed forces of this country and the police, to ensure that they are able to operate and perform efficiently and effectively,’’ he said.
According to Lawan, in order to minimise the casualties of the armed forces and improve efficiency, technology should be applied.
Security analysts are of the view that, aside enlisting more men and procuring more weapons, revving up intelligence gathering is also critical as this will keep security personnel ahead of the criminals or terrorists as the case may be.
Okoronkwo is of the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN)
By: Chijioke Okoronkwo
NEW Rivers: Promotion Of Workers’ Welfare
All across the country, Rivers State Governor, Nyesom Ezenwo Wike is known as Mr Projects. He is popular for his commitment to expanding the frontiers of infrastructural development of Rivers State. But there is an aspect of Governor Wike’s performance that is not as pronounced. His commitment to workers’ welfare.
Many have forgotten that Governor Wike took over the reins of leadership at a time the morale of Rivers workers was at its lowest level. The immediate past APC Administration owed the workers three months salary arrears. Even Pensioners were owed four months arrears.
Governor Wike cleared the arrears and has since placed workers welfare on his top priority list. He has always opened a line for dialogue and settlement of disputes that arise in the course of government-workers relationship.
The Rivers State Government has built and completed the Ultra-modern Secretariat of the Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC). The Former NLC Secretariat was gutted by fire in 2015. Since then, the Rivers NLC operated from makeshift facilities.
On 29th June, 2018, Governor Wike invited the NLC President, Comrade Ayuba Wabba to lay the Foundation of a new Secretariat. That Secretariat is now being used by Rivers workers. The State Government is also constructing another Secretariat for the Trade Union Congress (TUC). That Secretariat is almost ready for Commissioning.
During the commencement of construction, Governor Wike said that the State Government embarked on the construction of the two secretariats in appreciation of the cordial working relationship with Rivers workers.
“We have worked harmoniously with labour. They have not troubled this administration with unnecessary strikes . In order to build stability, we have set up a structure that will enhance the performance of labour.
“This project must be completed by December. I don’t want to hear excuses. The contractor has been mobilised. We will also build a secretariat for the Trade Union Congress “.
Performing the flag off, NLC President, Comrade Ayuba Wabba lauded the Rivers State Governor for taking steps to improve the working condition of workers.
“This will go down in history as a landmark as you are one of the governors who has worked with Labour for a better society”.
He said that the partnership between labour and the Rivers State Government will lead to faster development in Rivers State.
”Once workers are happy, they will put in their best and the state will benefit in terms of development “.
The NLC President added that the congress was overwhelmed by the gesture of the Rivers State Government, which will advance the productive relationship between Labour and the Government.
“Workers and employers are supposed to be partners in progress. It is when we partner together that we will be able to deliver on our various mandates. This is commendable and I urge that it should continue”, the NLC President said.
Rivers State NLC Chairman, Comrade Beatrice Itubor said by constructing the Rivers State Secretariat of the congress, Governor Wike has shown goodwill, which will be reciprocated by the workers.
The NLC Secretariat built by the Wike Administration is a three-storey building with conference halls, offices, stores and multiple staircases.
The Secretariat was commissioned as part of the first 100days of the second term of Governor Wike. It emphasised the commitment of the Rivers State Governor to the welfare of workers.
Speaking at the Commissioning of the NLC Secretariat, Governor Wike said that his administration will continue to partner with labour for the development of Rivers State.
He said that the State Government resolved to create enabling environment for labour leaders to work towards improving labour/government relations.
Rivers State Governor, Nyesom Ezenwo Wike called on the leadership of labour in the state to always place the interest of Rivers State above other considerations in their engagements with the State Government.
“For me, Rivers first before any other thing. Before you go on strike or declare any dispute with the Rivers State Government, look through and check what the implications would be for Rivers State.
. Chairman of NLC Rivers State, Comrade Beatrice Itubo commended the Rivers State Governor for building the Secretariat despite recent economic challenges. She said that labour is committed to improving synergy with the State Government for the development of the State.
Representative of the NLC President, Dr Comfort Okoh said Governor Wike is the authentic leader who is needed at the national level to advance national growth.
Aside the Secretariat, Governor Wike recently commissioned a Civil Servants Quarters in the heart of Old GRA in Port Harcourt. Last year, the Governor unveiled another Civil Servants Quarters at Lagos Street, Port Harcourt and Doctors Quarters at the GRA.
Governor Wike said that his administration remains committed to ensuring that civil servants live in beautiful and secured residential Quarters.
“ See where you are going to live free of charge. Assuming you are going to pay house rent here in Old GRA, you know it will be very costly.
“This is a very secured environment. Government is here for you. To give you the best. You also have to contribute your own quota as Civil Servants.”
Governor Wike urged Rivers civil servants to reciprocate the commitment of the State Government to their welfare. He said that they are under obligation to give their best to the state.
“Work for the people of the state. Civil servants should reciprocate and work for the people of Rivers State.
“I dont know any State that can say they have these facilities. This is the third time. We built one at Lagos Street, we built the Doctors Quarters and then this one.
“You have no excuse not to contribute the best. Take this property as your own and keep it clean. Civil servants I give that challenge keep your environment clean. “
The Rivers State Governor assured workers that his Administration will invest in the development of more housing quarters for civil servants.
“We will build more houses for civil servants to stay . Take it as your personal building.”
Governor Wike pointed out that Judges Quarters, constructed by his Administration, is one of the most beautiful residential estates in the country. He said that Judges Quarters will soon be commissioned.
The commitment to workers welfare does not mean that there are no areas for further engagement. It simply means that Governor Wike is ever willing to address workers needs within the available resources and with the required speed necessary at all times.
The harmony that exists cannot be underestimated. Several states are owing salaries and pensions, running into years. While State Economies are collapsing across the country, Rivers State is waxing stronger.
Much as the opposition is unwilling to recognise this fact, they appreciate the truth that Governor Wike has enhanced working conditions and stabilised the work environment.
The key projects developed by Governor Wike will serve as the premise for further partnership between the State Government and Rivers workers.
Nwakaudu is Special Assistant to Rivers State Governor on Electronic Media.
Using Weather Forecast To Boost Agric
The Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet) predicts a below-normal rainfall, dwindling amount and duration in many parts of the country.
Observers, therefore, posit that the pattern of rainfall can affect food production except there is sensitisation to climate-smart agricultural practices and proper weather information dissemination to the farmers.
Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change.
Researchers believe that widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people who are dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods.
According to them, the threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems.
They note that CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways.
Minister of State for Aviation, Sen. Hadi Sirika, while reviewing NiMet’s report admits that the country is expected to experience a below-normal rainfall season.
He observes that rains are expected to start late, especially in the northern part of the country while the south eastern zone as well as the coastal areas will experience a normal onset of the rains.
He notes that most of the northern states will experience earlier-than-normal end growing season while shorter length of the growing season is predicted for most parts of the country.
He also says that there will be frequent and severe dry spell over the northern region during the rainy season.
“Dry spell will be more frequent and severe, ranging from 10 to 18 days in some parts of the extreme north around June and July, while the little dry season or (August break) in parts of the south is expected to be pronounced.
“The expected below normal rainfall in parts of the country does not rule out the possibility of isolated flash floods due to high intensity rainfall at the peak of the season, especially in places that are naturally prone to flooding.
“In every season, dry spells occur and in certain cases, lead to crop losses; farmers and other stakeholders are advised to get in touch with NiMet to access meteorological updates within the growing season.
“This is because these are risk factors for farmers in the affected areas and have to be carefully and scientifically managed.
According to Sirika, early release of the SRP before the beginning of the rainy season is to ensure effective harnessing of the climate resource.
He agrees that such information will further guarantee minimal losses from associated hazards, which are becoming quite devastating in this era of climate change.
He says that an increase of at least 30 per cent agricultural yields can be achieved if relevant meteorological information is utilised.
Similarly, Prof. Sani Mashi, the director-general of NiMet, says that farmers in the northern part of the country, mostly the Sahel zones are advised not to plant early as the country is likely to experience late onset of rains.
Mashi explains that early cessation of rains in the northern part will lead to shorter length of growing season and recommends early provision and access to improved and drought resistant variety seeds.
“Normal onset is expected over coastal and some south-east states while the earliest onset date is predicted to be from March 7 around the coastal region of the south-south region.
“The onset dates are expected to change northwards with areas around Maiduguri, Sokoto, Katsina, Dutse, Potiskum, Kano and Nguru having onset of rains from June 16.
“The earliest cessation dates are expected to be from September 29 around the north-western parts of the country while most of the north is expected to witness cessation dates within October,’’ he explains.
He explains further that while the growing season is expected to end between late October and mid-November, parts of the central and southern states are expected to experience end of the season by mid-November to early December while the season is expected to end by late December along the coast.
According to him, governments at all levels are advised to embark on awareness and sensitisation of farmers and other stakeholders on CSA practices such as on-farm water harvesting structures, soil and water conservation practices and land preservation.
“Farmers are also encouraged to make provision for irrigation water during the predicted periods of dry spell.
“The warmer-than-normal temperatures predicted in February and April are expected to affect livestock in some parts of the country, particularly the northern states where rainfall has not yet established.
“Decrease in fodder production from dry land, increase in vector-borne diseases, internal parasite infestation and mortality rate is likely to increase during these months due to temperature fluctuations, shell quality and egg weight in layers may also be affected.
“The colder-than-normal daytime temperatures in March may affect day old chicks and increase feed conversion ratio in layers and broilers while the spread of heat-related diseases is likely to increase as a result of the predicted warmer conditions in most parts of the country.
“Good veterinary practices for livestock vaccination, fisheries and aquaculture management should be adhered to because fish production is likely to be adversely affected as a result of warmer-than- normal conditions especially in the northern part of the country,’’ he warns.
Ogbaje writes for the News Agency of Nigeria.
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