Pope Clement X1, Born 23 July 1640

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Pope Clement X1 who was
born in 23 July 1640 Giovanni Francesco Albani was Pope from 23 November 1700 to his death in 1721.
Clement X1 was a patron of the arts and of science. He was also a great benefactor of the Vatican Library, his interest in archaeology is credited with saving much of Rome’s antiquity. In fact, he authorized excavations of the Roman catacombs.
Giovanni Francesco Albani was born into a noble family that had established itself there from northern Albania in the 15th century and were originally soldiers of Scanderbeg against the Ottoman Empire. During his reign as a pope the famous iiiyricum Sacrum was commissioned, and today it is one of the main sources of field of Albanology, with over 5,000 pages divided in several volumes written by Daniele Farlati and Dom. Coletti.
He was governor of Rieti and Urbino, and was created cardinal-Deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro by Pope Alexander V111. He succeeded as pope on 23 November 1700.
After the death of Pope Innocent X11, a conclave was convoked to elect a successor. Albani was regarded as a fine diplomat known for his skills as a peacemaker and so was unanimously elected pope on 23 November 1700.
But his election came only a day after his ordination as priest and a few hours after he celebrated his first mass. After the conceive had arrived at the two-thirds majority needed tor election. Albani was ordained a bishop and assumed the pontifical name of “Clement X1”. Soon after his accession, the War of Spanish Succession broke out.
Despite initially holding an ambiguous neutrality, Clement was later forced to name Charles, Archduke of Austria, as King of Spain, since the imperial army had conquered much of northern Italy and was threatending Rome itself (January 1709).
By the Treaty of Utrecht that concluded the War, the Papal States lost their suzerainty over the Farnese Duchy of Parma and Piacenza in favour of Austria, and lost Comacchio as well. It was a blow from which the declining prestige of the Papal States would never recover.
In 1713 the bull Unigenitus was published greatly disturbing the peace of the Gallican (French) Church. The bull, which was rduced with the contribution of Gregorio Selleri, a lector at the College of Saint Thomas, the future Ponifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum, fostered the condemnation of Janesnism by condemning 101 propositions from the works of Quesnel as heretical and as identical with propositions already condemned in the writings of Jansen.