By Jill Sheffield and Danielle Nierenberg
This week, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development will draw global leaders to Rio de Janeiro to discuss how to ‘green’ the economy and reduce poverty around the world. The aim is to develop global goals to meet Nigeria’s and our world’s current needs—for food, health, energy, housing and other necessities—while also preserving the environment.
For many months, conference leaders focused lead-up discussions on issues including carbon emissions, clean water, and agricultural productivity, among others. However, paradoxically, there was little attention to a core issue in planning and implementing sustainability: ensuring women’s equal access to resources and services, including reproductive health.
The meeting, known as Rio+20, will mark the twentieth anniversary of 1992’s Earth Summit in the same city, which resulted in landmark conventions on climate change and biodiversity. The 1992 Summit included a call for gender equality, but no mention of reproductive health, or specific investment goals. So today there is, again, a historic opportunity to acknowledge and support the central role of women in sustainability and poverty reduction efforts.
As the world population passes 7 billion and Nigeria’s population nears 160 million, increased access to reproductive health and voluntary family planning is vital. According to a 2003 Guttmacher Institute study, nearly 215 million women in developing countries, including one-third of Nigerian women have an unmet need for contraception. Research shows that if we were to meet women’s needs to plan the number and spacing of their pregnancies, population growth would slow and global carbon emissions would decrease by between 8 and 15 percent—the equivalent of stopping all deforestation today.
The human toll of the unmet need for contraception is staggering. A 2006 Guttmacher Institute study reports that 10 percent of pregnancies among Nigerian women are unwanted, leading to approximately 748,000 unsafe abortions, and nearly 2 million miscarriages. Among women terminating their pregnancies in abortion, nearly 1 in 5 do so because they say they are too young to be mothers.
Women are also critical in agriculture and food security efforts. Women farmers make up 80 percent of the agricultural labor force in Nigeria. This percentage holds consistent in other African countries and in some parts of Asia. Estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization show that if women had equal access to resources, such as land, training, technology, and credit, global food production would increase by 20 to 30 percent, which could reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12 to 17 percent.
This extensive and intimate relationship with the land means that women, often exclusively, have extensive knowledge of traditional remedies and plants, indigenous farming practices and local methods of crop cultivation. Agriculture development policies and programs should be inclusive of women to meet local needs.
Investing in women’s education furthers economic goals and improves the health and wellbeing of future generations. According to the World Bank, a one year increase in education for women corresponds to an increase of US$700 in GDP per capita. In addition, educated women tend to marry later and have fewer children. Their own children, in turn, tend to have lower infant mortality rates, higher school enrollment, and suffer less from malnutrition.
As leaders look to the future and establish global sustainability goals, specific goals to promote gender equality in Nigeria and around the world must be set. Doing so will benefit women’s families, communities and nations today, and the environment and global economies tomorrow. Recognizing the important role women play as environmental stewards, food producers, business owners, health care providers, and mothers is the key to creating a prosperous and sustainable future for everyone.
Jill Sheffield is President of Women Deliver (www.womendeliver.org), Danielle Nierenberg is project director of the Worldwatch Institute’s Nourishing the Planet project (www.NourishingthePlanet.org).