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Is Nigerian Press The Police Scourge?



Book Review

TITLE:            Media Reports And  Police Image In Re-branding Nigeria

AUTHOR:      Celestine Msunwi Dickson

PUBLISHER: Pearl Publishers, Port Harcourt.

Mummy, mummy, four people with guns and in uniform stopped daddy’s car on our way to Zoo today and asked daddy to bring out some documents. And when we got to the Zoo, another group of three men and a woman holding biro and paper were trying to question daddy and I what we were doing at the Zoo.

Ade, a three-year old boy was narrating his experience to his mother when his father took him and his two siblings to the Zoo in Lagos for excursion during the Easter period.

Oblivious of the roles and duties of these two groups of ‘interlopers’ trying to meddle into the affairs of his family, Ade saw the four policemen holding the gun at a check-point and the four journalists with pen and papers at the Zoo as unnecessary threats to them. Ade had already made up his mind not to follow his father to the Zoo again. But his mother who explained the roles of the men in uniform and the duties of the members of the pen fraternity saved the situation.

That was a similar explanation the author of the  “Media Reports and Police Image in Re-branding Nigeria” tried to offer his audience.

All over the world, two prominent institutions that hold the key to the survival of any society are the Mass Media and the Police Force. No society survives without information. As the carrier of information, the mass media is not just the watchdog of the society, but also the conscience of the nation. But for the mass media, our society would have remained in the medieval age and most countries of the world would have continued to languish under the tyranny of military dictatorship.

In the same vein, the Police Force is another important institution that has helped in keeping the world together. It is pre-requisite to social orderliness. Besides its unique role as the law enforcement agent, the task of peace-keeping operations around the world rests on its shoulders. It is not for nothing that the United Nations accords the Police Force the necessary respect and dignity.

Ironically, while the men and women in Police uniform in other parts of the world are held in high esteem, the Nigerian Police receive the strings of bullet from the Nigerian populace.

Reasons for this are not far-fetched. Of all the Nigerian institutions with image problems, the Nigerian Police Force ranks the worst. Its mere mentioning instills fear and creates suspicion in people’s minds. No one hears the word ‘Police’ in Nigeria without looking over his shoulders.

The Transparent International (TI) in one of its recent reports described the Nigerian Police as one of the worst harbingers of corrupt practices. The image of the Nigerian Police, to say the least, has gathered so much stains that no detergent can cleanse overnight. The battered image of this important institution has not only made the men and women in Police uniform the butt of beer parlour jokes, but has also earned Nigeria an unenviable status among comity of nations.

But how did Nigeria come about this ugly image? How did an important institution such as the Police Force become the scoff of the town? Why, how and when did the Nigerian Police become object of ridicule? Are mass media reports and several other reports by the anti-corruption agencies about the Nigerian Police true reflections of their image? If these reports are correct, then what detergent can we apply to cleanse the dirty linen in the stable of the police.

These are some of the questions Mr. Celestine Msunwi Dickson tries to provide answers to in his book.

The eight-chapter book is more or less an image laundering effort for the Nigerian Police in particular and Nigeria in general. It tries to key into the Re­branding Nigeria Project being championed by the former Minister of Information, Professor Dora Akunyili, all in an attempt to correct some of the negative impressions created around the Nigerian Police, as well as assisting the Nigerian public to form the right attitude and mindset about Nigeria.

The book tries to rationalize the inefficiencies of the Nigerian Police to combat crimes and maintain law and order. It also tries to absolve the men and women in Police uniform of the acts of criminality that pervade Nigerian society.

According to the author, “The recruits are poorly trained because the training facilities are grossly inadequate for such a large number of recruits” (Page 53).

He continues his justifications on page 55 by referring to a statement credited to the former Inspector General of Police, Ibrahim Coomasie that “……. anytime a citizen becomes a public figure, his first official correspondence on assuming duty is to write the Inspector General of Police to ask for an orderly and Policemen to guard his house … Everybody wants to use the Police as a status symbol, yet the members of the organisation remain without accommodation, adequate remuneration, tools to work with, transport to patrol, effective communication and intelligence outfit to support their operation. “

As a man who has a stake in the Nigerian Police, these justifications are not unexpected from the author. He, however, concedes that a significant number of Policemen have lost their morale compass due to corrupt practices and utter depravity of humanity.

Nevertheless, the author argues, although without enough justifications, that the negative image being suffered by the Police was as a result of misinformation and misrepresentation by the mass media.

It is pertinent to say at this juncture that there is no institution without its own ugly side. Only the degree and depth of depravity and rot differs. Just as the Police enigma continues to haunt and assail the nation, so does the recklessness of some people in the media industry continues to give the media profession a bad name. But in spite of this ugly side, the Nigerian Press remains the most vibrant in Africa in terms of informing, educating and entertaining the public, as well as in its watchdog role; just as the Nigerian Police remain one of the highly respected forces by the United Nations. That Nigeria is enjoying democracy today is to the credit of both the Nigerian Press and the Police.

It is in view of this that I find it subjective and defensive the author’s conclusion on page 56 that the journalism industry in Nigeria is now left in the hands of quacks who habour hatred and bitterness for the Police and whose mission is to misinform, misrepresent and mislead the public, just because the media tries to perform its watchdog role over the Police and in the process expose some of the dirty linen of the men and women in Police uniform.

Is the Nigeria Media also responsible for illegal check-points mounted by the Policemen across the country to extort money from the public? This is the question we should ask ourselves.

Nonetheless, the author demonstrates rare courage and patriotic zeal in handling his diagnosis of what I will call Nigeria’s unenviable image. He recognizes the might of the pen and argues brilliantly that the Nigerian media holds the key to the success of the Re-branding Nigeria project. He therefore charged the mass media practitioners to focus more on the good sides of the Nigerian society.

While it is right to assert that the Nigerian media should begin to temper national foibles and idiosyncrasies with something noble and inspirational, the Nigerian society, especially the Police should also live above board and should not abuse the power of the gun or see themselves as the instruments of oppression, coercion, repression, intimidation and exploitation, even in the face of provocation.

We will be playing to the gallery if we see the mass media as an image laundering agent or as a mere tool in the hands of government and the powers-­that-be. For clarification purposes, the mass media, besides its primary assignment of informing, educating and entertaining the public, has the onerous responsibility of holding government and the governed accountable.

And as the Fourth Estate of the Realm, the Press is not expected to grovel under the feet of the government. And I doubt if the intention of the Akunyili’s Re-branding Nigeria Project is to consign the truth in the garbage of lies or to make Nigerian Press look like a carrot in the hands of government. This is where the real challenges lie in ambush for Dickson’s book.

Again, the book would have been more interesting and challenging if the author had focused only on the theme of the book which borders on media reports and Police image. Nevertheless, the 160 – page book, in spite of its literary deficiencies, unnecessary comments and zigzagged analyses that are often associated with budding writers, leaves the readers with the assignment of exploring and discovering some facts about the Nigerian Police, the mass media and Nigeria at large. The challenges are now yours.

Boye Salau

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Development Of Art Education In Nigeria



A major constraint to the study of the visual arts as a school subject in Nigeria today is the dearth of art literature such as learned journals and textbooks. Several factors have also contributed to this problem.
The earliest literature on aspects of Nigerian art could be found in the books and other types of literature which were produced by early Western travellers, merchants, Muslim and Christian missionaries, and colonial administrators who had come to the area that is referred to today as Nigeria about a millennium ago.
Other examples of published works with references made to Nigerian arts are those of Captain Hugh Clapperton (1829) in which he commented on the elaborate ornaments which characterised the wooden sculptures that he saw in Oyo in 1926. Leo Frobenius (1913), a German ethnologist discussed Ife bronze sculptures in his account of the African cultures he saw during his trip to the continent at the beginning of the twentieth century A.D.
One of the earliest examples of works with references on aspects of Nigerian art was that of W.H Clarke, a Baptist missionary. It was an account of his exploration of Yorubaland in the late nineteenth century, which remained unpublished until 1972. Samuel Johnson’s (1921) book on the history of the Yoruba has a section devoted to the Yoruba people’s visual art. The work of Johnson, a black Anglican missionary like Ajayi Crowther, was the result of his attempt to document the oral history of the Yoruba which he feared may become lost as a result of the protracted Yoruba civil wars of the nineteenth century.
It is noteworthy that the views of aspects of Nigerian art documented in the published dairies of early travellers to country were not intended to be used as instructional materials in Nigerian educational institutions as these did not exist at that time, and were established some centuries or decades later. The works containing materials on Nigerian art like those of other African people were published at that time for Western readers many of whose curiosity about Africa’s prospects for trade and other imperialistic potentialities engendered the exploration of the country.
The Introduction of Books into Nigerian Schools
Books were not used in the informal education system which was practised in pre-colonial Nigeria. This was because book writing and reading were alien to the traditional Nigerians whose cultural history was oral before Muslims scholars and clergy men introduced the Quran and other Islamic books into northern Nigeria. This was done in their bid to facilitate their Islamisation of the indigenous people of Nigeria in the middle eleventh century A.D (Fayose and Madu 2001:16). Similarly, Christian missionaries introduced books such as the Bible, hymnals, catechisms and the Queen’s primer in their bid to ensure Christian evangelism and “civilize” Nigerians whom they first encountered in the southern part of the country. For instance, this phenomenon in Nigeria took place in the coastal towns of Warri, and the ancient Benin kingdom that was located at the mouth of River Gwatto in the fourteenth century A.D. (Kenny 1083:45-60).
However, art books did not appear in the Nigerian art education scene until sometime in the early twentieth century A.D. after the formal education system had been introduced into the country some eight decades back. Early art teachers in Nigeria such as Aina Onabolu and Kenneth Murray, both employed by the colonial government in 1922 and 1927, respectively used imported art textbooks to facilitate their teaching of visual arts in Nigerian schools, which were few and located in major towns like Lagos, Ibadan and Umuahia at the time. The source of the art books, like the ones which were used to teach other subjects such as English language, history, and mathematics, was mainly Europe where the teachers studied. Aside these points is the fact that publishers such as Oxford and Cambridge Universities presses which produced books abound in countries like Britain. It was not until much later in the twentieth century when printing and publishing began to thrive following the steady growth of journalism and commercial printing that the production and publication of textbooks began in Nigeria. Fayose and Madu (2001: 19-20) inform that the process was facilitated by foreign publishers, who opened branches of their companies in the country in the 1930s and 1940s.
It is, however, doubtful if the writing of art textbooks was included in the agenda of the text book committee which was set up in 1927 by the colonial government in Nigeria because the study of art which began only some five years earlier in 1923 was at its infant stage the text book committee which was charged with task of “seeking for manuscripts and authors that could suit Nigerians” was set up as the result of the insistence of the participants at the Imperial Education Conference in London in 1923 that school text books should be made relevant to the people.
The early text books which were imported from abroad and used in Nigerian schools were written by foreign art scholars. Art pupils in Nigerian schools in the era before and immediately after independence in 1960 will remember reading books like Art: Creative and Mental Growth (Lowenfeld 1947), Graphic Design (Lewies and Brinkley 1954) Art for African Schools (Stanfield 1956), A Concise History of Art (Bazin 1958), Art Teaching for Primary Schools in Africa (Mackenzie 1966), Aesthetics and Art Theory: an Historical Introduction (Osborne 1970), Art and Illusion (Gombrich 1971) and The Story of Art (Gombrich, 1972). General Art text books which were imported into Nigeria during the era in question include the ones written by Fleming (1955) Hoffman (1965) and Feldman (1967). These focused on Western art which they treated from the prehistoric art period, through the ancient Mediterranean and classical European traditions. They ended at the evolution of modern art era with slight mention made of the role of African arts in its dispensation.
Earlier in the 1920’s, a few expatriate artists of whom Kenneth Murray was typical, commenced writing articles on aspects of Nigerian arts. These they published in the Nigeria Magazine, a government journal on Nigeria, her people and culture that was launched in 1927 (Awe 1989: 28). The establishment of the Department of Antiquities with the Antiquities Act. No. 17 of 1953, which mandate was to discover, preserve and research into the diverse traditional cultures of the people of Nigeria provided more impetus for the publications of materials on Nigerian visual arts (Awe 1989: 28).
The results of the ethnographic and archaeological works of the likes of William and Bernard Fagg, Frank Willett, Sylvia Leith-Rosa and Thurston Shaw were not only featured in volumes of the journal but inadvertently became the subjects of books on Nigerian arts. Examples of these are Bernard Fagg’s (1977) Nok Terracottas, Willett’s (1967) Ife in the History of West African Sculpture, Leith-Rosa’s (1970) Nigerian Pottery and Shaw’s (1977) Unearthing Igbo Ukwu.
Experimental workshops on Yoruba art which were organized in Oye-Ekiti, Ijebu-Igbo and Ondo in the late 1940s with a view to using their products in Catholic churches as liturgical objects propelled Rev. Father Kelvin Carroll (1947) to write the book, Yoruba Religious Carving, Pagan and Christian Sculpture in Nigeria and Dahomey.
The seed of interest in traditional and contemporary Nigerian arts scholarship as well as that of a general interest in African arts, which had been sown in the early twentieth century due partly to the international interest in traditional African art and mainly to the fervour to search for and create a cultural identity for new independent African nations, grew immediately after independence in 1960. Ulli Beier (1960), Marshall Mount (1973) and Frank Willett (1971) blazed the trial with their books in this respect. Osa Egonwa (1994) and Kojo Fosu (1986) followed suit much later.
In writing about adult education in Nigeria, Onyenemezu (2012) acknowledged that the country is facing challenges in the 21st century. Recently youth and young adults have been restive in the Niger Delta region resulting in violence and youth militancy in militias. More recently, Boko Haram is wreaking havoc through bombings, kidnappings, and assassinations. Onyenemezu argued that examining adult education could help to alleviate the instability and increase political and economic development. Oddly, when Zuofa and Olori, (2015) recently researched adult learning methods in Nigeria, they did not include storytelling. Evidence suggests that it would be an effective method of adult education in Nigeria. Whether in formal, informal, or non-formal learning, telling the stories of historical facts and cultures are significant aspects of connecting adult learners with their cultural heritage.
Although Achebe first wrote of the impact of colonizers on Igbo clans in 1959, as recently as 2014, Nduka expressed concern that the Igbo culture will be lost. He lamented that when fathers do not know the history and stories of their own culture, it is a tragedy that they cannot answer the questions of their children about festivals, the indigenous calendar, the age-grade or age-group system, chieftancy within the community, or meanings of proverbs. Storytelling is useful for members of the African diaspora not just to remember their own history, but to adapt to their new homes. Tuwe (2016) studied African communities based in New Zealand and argued that the oral tradition of storytelling was useful when dealing with work-related challenges. 96 Decolonization involves challenging Western epistemologies and embracing an indigenous paradigm and traditional knowledge.
Recognizing the power and influence of native stories can assist decolonization and reverse the perception of colonizers being knowers and indigenous people as being ignorant. First, the legacy of the helping Western colonializing Other must be resisted…As agents of colonial power, Western scientists discovered, extracted, appropriated, commodified, and distributed knowledge about the indigenous other. (Denzin, Lincoln & Smith, 2008, p. 5) In order to undo western dominance and unravel colonialism, it is necessary to create knowledge based on African philosophy which includes “community-centred [sic] ways of knowing, the story-telling framework, [and] language as a bank of knowledge” (Chilisa & Preece, 2005, p. 49). Storytelling satisfies all three of those aspects. Since storytelling was a social practice and a participatory experience, it is community centered. The storytelling framework has been used for millennia in Nigeria in the oral tradition, which continues even with the evolution of written stories.
Finally, language is a bank of knowledge since proverbs and cultural history are included in both the oral and written tradition. Although European colonizers renamed lands, bodies of water, and other African assets by inflicting names related by the colonizers and missionaries, in stories, Nigerians could reclaim their indigenous knowledge and language by reclaiming the original names. In addition, storytelling as a motivational tool has the potential to expose learners to the path of success using inspirational stories that can foster strong connection. Denning (2011) noted that much of what we know is composed of stories, and many of them describe how circumstances and situations in the past have been successfully handled. In other words, through the application of stories, adult learners can gain knowledge that will be useful for undertaking life’s arduous tasks. For example, hearing stories about conflict resolution, one could learn how to resolve a conflict. A personal life story could culminate in learning transformation and new understanding (Pfahl & Wiessner, 2007).
When people organize their experiences into stories, the resulting narrative “may be an ideal process in that it characterizes movement of development toward some future end” (Weissner & Pfahl, 2007, p. 28). Dillard (2008) has capitalized on this notion by adopting the idea of using the term African ascendant rather than descendant to describe “the upward and forward moving nature of African people through the diaspora as well as on the African continent herself” (p. 291). This is itself a decolonizing perspective. When people examine their own stories, they can examine them in relation to larger cultural contexts (Rossiter, 2002, p. 4). Adults have the potential to make changes and rewrite their lives stories (Pfahl & Wiessner, 2007), reducing their colonized world views. Storytelling allows individuals to rewrite themselves, but it can also have a larger impact: indigenous peoples who are combatting the effects of colonialism can unite a group or community and rewrite communal memory (Weissner & Pfahl, 2007).

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Eczema And Depression In Children



Eczema does not just irritate children’s skin. The often disfiguring condition may also be tied to depression, anxiety and sleep difficulties, new research warns.
A study of more than 11,000 children and teens found that those with severe eczema were twice as likely to become clinically depressed as eczema-free children.
“Eczema is an itchy complex skin disease,” said study author Dr. Katrina Abuabara, an associate professor of dermatology at the University of California, San Francisco.
“The disease course and severity can be quite variable,” explained Abuabara. “It often presents in early childhood, but can occur at any age. It tends to be episodic, flaring up, then remitting, but these cycles can be chronic over years.
“For many children, the disease seems to improve by their teen years, but we’ve found that some continue to have episodic disease into adulthood,” she added.
Risk goes up among those with a family history of the disease or related conditions like asthma and allergies. And the condition “is quite common, affecting up to 20% of children and 10% of adults,” Abuabara noted.
Among the children she and her colleagues started tracking in 1991, the annual prevalence of eczema — also known as atopic dermatitis — ranged from 14% to 19% between the ages of 3 and 18.
Roughly 22% to 40% developed a moderate or severe form of the disease; the rest of the cases were mild.
In addition to being linked to a doubling of depression risk, severe eczema also doubled the risk for the kind of depressive and/or anxiety-linked behaviors that typically indicate underlying emotional and psychological difficulties. Severe cases also drove up the odds for sleep troubles.
The depressed children were more likely to be female, and from a higher social class, the authors found.
Mild and moderate eczema were not linked to a higher risk for childhood depression, the team stressed. But among children as young as 4, even less serious cases of eczema were associated with a 29% to 84% spike in the risk for internalizing behaviors.
That’s concerning, Abuabara and her colleagues noted, because children who struggle with depression and/or brewing emotional turmoil may face a higher risk for depression, anxiety and poor overall health as adults.
“Many parents of children with eczema will tell you it can be a deceptively devastating disease,” Abuabara said.
“Eczema has long been known to cause sleep disturbances which impact the whole family,” she added, “and certainly can take a toll on emotional well-being. Increasingly, studies are revealing that some types of eczema are more than ‘skin deep’, and can impact overall health in a variety of ways.”
In general, “skin disease is well known to affect patients’ quality of life and cause depression,” agreed Dr. Robert Kirsner, chairman of the department of dermatology and cutaneous surgery at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
Children are often thought to be relatively resilient in that respect, said Kirsner, who was not part of the study team.
But “understandably, severe eczema, even in children, can cause depression and associated internalizing symptoms such as low self-esteem, fear and worrying,” he said.
Of note is the finding that even “less severely affected patients apparently are emotionally affected by disease, and may internalize their feelings and manifest symptoms,” Kirsner said.

By: Ibinabo Ogolo

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Malaria: Trial Vaccine To Protect Young African Children Underway



A new approach to protecting young African children from malaria could reduce deaths and illness from the disease by 70%, a study suggests.
Giving them vaccines before the worst season in addition to preventative drugs produced “very striking” results, London researchers say.
The trial followed 6,000 children aged under 17 months in Burkina Faso and Mali.
Most of the 400,000 deaths from malaria each year are in the under-fives.
And the mosquito-borne disease is still a major health issue in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
This trial focused on giving very young children a vaccine already in use and anti-malarial drugs at the time of year they are most vulnerable – often the rainy season when mosquitoes multiply.
“It worked better than we thought would be the case,” said Prof Brian Greenwood, a member of the research team, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), which led the trial.
“Hospital admissions were less, deaths were less in both countries – and we really didn’t expect to see that.”
Over three years, the trial found three doses of the vaccine and drugs before the worst malaria season, followed by a booster dose before subsequent rainy seasons, controlled infections much better than vaccines or drugs alone – and, the researchers said, could save millions of young lives in the African Sahel.
Among the children who received vaccine doses and drugs, there were:
624 cases of malaria
11 children treated in hospital with severe malaria
three deaths from malaria
Among the same number of children who received preventative drugs alone – the current approach in those countries – there were:
1,661 malaria cases
37 admissions to hospital
11 deaths from malaria
Scientists say the combined effects of the vaccine and drugs in the trial appear to be surprisingly powerful.
The vaccine – called RTS,S and created by GlaxoSmithKline more than 20 years ago – kills parasites that multiply very quickly in the liver, while anti-malarial drugs target parasites in the body’s red blood cells.
Vaccines against malaria have been rolled out before, such as this one in Ghana. Flu vaccines have been used seasonally, to protect people ahead of winter, for many years – but it has rarely been tried for malaria.
The World Health Organization’s global malaria programme director, Dr Pedro Alonso, said: “We welcome this innovative use of a malaria vaccine to prevent disease and death in highly seasonal areas in Africa.”
The vaccine has already reached more than 740,000 children in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi, as part of routine childhood-vaccine programme.
And researchers in Mali say they look forward to “a quick policy decision” by the WHO for this new approach.
No concerning side-effects were found in children in the trial.
And the children involved will continue to receive vaccines, drugs or both until the age of five, with additional findings from the study available next year.

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