One of the World’s topical issues today is climate change and its implication to developed and developing nations. This issue can be compared with the global economic recession in some developed economies like USA and oil spill and environmental pollution in developing nation like Nigeria. This issue has become more imperative, given that the world will gather to deliberate on the same in December 7, at Denmark.
Climate change, according to frame work convention on climate change is defined as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activities that alter the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable period”.
From this definition it is obvious that climate change may be natural or human caused. Some of the human causes of climate changes are: gas flaring, dust from cement industries, burning of fossil fuels, electricity generating industries, burning of bushes, deforestation, green house gasses, spray from pesticides, air conditioners and waste from industries. One of the most human induced climate changes came from gas flare. Gas flare gives rise to green house effect which, include (water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxide, menthsine, chloro fluro carbon and ozone). These substances trap heat in the atmosphere instead of allowing it to radiate back into space.
It is important to note that without the green house gasses, the earth will be about 60o cooler than it is today and life will be impossible meaning that there are positive sides of the green house gases.
However, human activities enhance the green house effect primarily by burning fossil fuel (coal, oil and natural gas). These fuels are stored carbon, formed from organic matters, burning them return carbon to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, the gas that contributes most of the enhanced green house effect. Other green house gasses are less common than carbon dioxide in the atmosphere but have potent effect. There are nitrogen oxides, (chloro fluro carbon). These have impact to the atmosphere.
The negative consequence of climate change include but not limited to global warming, plant and animal depletion and extinction, respiratory and other diseases, severe storm leading to flooding and the spread changes in ecological imbalance. The net consequence of this is that these regions and places can not adequately address the problem of hunger and poverty occasioned by climate change.
Nigeria is a Federation of 36 States and 776 Local Government Areas; it has a unique Federal Constitution. A strong centre and weak States and Local Government Areas.
The constitution is the grand norm of the people controlling the activities of the states and creating areas of jurisdiction for the various tiers of government. Powers are shared between the Federal Government (central government) and the corresponding States and Local Government Authorities. Nigeria runs a bicameral legislature at the centre, a single and monolithic economy derived from oil and gas. Crude oil and gas account to 800% of the export earning for the country. The said crude oil is found and located in the Niger Delta region of the country. The Niger Delta region is made up of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers States. But for political and selfish interests, the geographical location of Niger Delta has extended to Edo, Ondo, Akwa lbom, Cross River, Abia, and lmo States. All these states are located in the southern part of the country. The total land mass of both Natural and political Niger Delta is 70,000 KM2 square meters.
The main feature of these regions apart from the presence of highly prized crude oil is the low topography and the geology is made up of homogeneous sedimentary rocks. The region displays a typical dendrite drainage pattern. This is because most of the tributaries join main Rivers at oblique angles. There are thick forest and marine environment, high vegetation, costal areas like creeks, rivers and sea beds. The region has also the greatest wet land in Africa and mangrove forest in West Africa.
Since 1956 the region has become synonymous with resources of Nigeria. It is said that crude oil exploitation has accounted for over 90% of the nation’s foreign exchange and over 80% of the nation’s (GDP) as well as 95% of the National Budget.
The Niger Delta people are very bard working people and contribute to the National economy through Agriculture. The major occupation is fanning and fishing both at subsistence and commercial levels and also contributing to the food need of the country.
In this region, are key major oil and gas companies and multinational corporations. Some of these companies include SHELL BP, GULF, MOBIL, TOTAL, ELF, AGIP SAFRAP, TEXACO, CHEVRON. Some of these companies carry out exploratory activities while others carry out geological and seismic activities. The search for oil includes such activities as seismic and geological, exploratory, production, refming and transportation of final product either through the marine vessels or through trucks. Each of these activities leave behind, environmental problems and degradation one of which is gas flaring leading to green house effect and global warmingi.
Although, the Nigerian government through the Nigeria National Petroleum corporation entered into a joint ventures with some of these oil companies, the level of environmental pollution and degradation in the region where the prospecting and exploration take place has not improved . Oil spill takes place almost every day in tins Nigeria
Since 1956 the region has become synonymous with resources of Nigeria. It is said that crude oil exploitation has accollilted for over 900/0 of the nation’s foreign exchange and over 80% of the nation’s (GDP) as well as 95% of the National Budget.
The Niger Delta people are very hard working people and contribute to the National economy through Agriculture. The major occupation is farming and fishing both at subsistence and commercial levels and also contributing to the food need of the country.
In this region, are key major oil and gas companies and multinational corporations. Some of these companies include SHELL BP, GULF, MOBIL, TOTAL, ELF, AGIP SAFRAP, TEXACO, CHEVRON. Some of these companies cany out exploratory activities while others cany out geological and seismic activities. The search for oil includes such activities as seismic and geological, exploratory, production, refining and transportation of final product either through the marine vessels or through trucks. Each of these activities leave behind, environmental problems and degradation one of which is gas flaring leading to green house effect and global warming.
Although, the Nigerian government through the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation entered into a joint ventures with some of these oil companies, the level of environmental pollution and degradation in the region where the prospecting and exploration take place has not improved 14. Oil spill takes place almost every day in the region.
The nationalization of the oil and mineral resources by the federal government of Nigeria has not help matters. This region that produces the crude, rather than having good shares in the benefit of the natural resources are exposed to environmental pollution and degradation from the oil prospecting and exploratory companies. This has led to the high level of insecurity in the region and agitation for resource control and management as can be seen in the case of A.G OF ABIA STATE AND 36 ORS VS. A.G FEDERATION.
The Nigeria government set up an emission target for 2004. There is also an LNG in Bonny in Rivers State for abolition of flare since 2004. but due to non corporation by multinational cooporations, the date has been extended to 2010 and thereafter emission of gas still continue because of lack of cooperation from (MNC) and industries in Nigeria.
AI-GORE (2007) had to say that the negative effect of climate change would be severe for poor nations. Gas flare shall be felt by poor region and poor people of the World. The Niger Delta people are said to be the poorest in Nigeria and Africa living below $1 (US) dollar per day. Diseases, hunger, unemployment, poor infrastructural facilities, plant and animal extinction, flooding, desertification, are the common feature of these regions. This region is very vulnerable to climate change and the negative effect.
This essay is therefore, intended to examine, the effect of climate change on the oil and gas producing region of Nigeria. The study will also include providing solution to the climate changes and the adverse effect on the rich region and poor people of the Niger Delta. .The study will involve, evaluating the United Nation Conference on human environment 1972 at Stockholm.. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development of 1972 and the KYOTO Protocol of 1994 open for signature in 1998. Attempt would be made to find out the reason for the exclusion of the developing nation from the framework plan on climate change and the preparedness of the Niger Delta region to natural disaster given the fragile ecosystem induced by decade of oil exploratory activities in the region locally too, some oil companies have constructed some gas recycling plants and others are cuing from there. Internationally, awareness in this regard has been created by the United Nation Conference of 1972 in Stockholm, the Rio declaration on Environment and Development in 1997, the KYOTO protocol of 1994. In fact the present Copenhagen conference of head of states is aimed at enlarging and expanding the activities and conclusion reached in KYOTO (JAPAN) as some of tile decisions and actions plans have been rested and tried with minimal progress in this regard. A new approach perhaps need to be adopted by the meeting of the heads of states this time around to reach an acceptable globally binding agreement on climate change.
Unarguable, both locally and internationally climate change is being addressed but will the adverse consequences arising from the unregulated use of the air and its component completely phase out as a result of these efforts? How can the natural causes of climate change be handled by the conference? For us in Nigeria and Niger Delta, these questions call for answers. This is more so, as oil production is on daily basis, injustices are springing up hourly, local method of refuse disposal system are on the increase, bush burning for fuel cards and grazing are part of our national lives.
Indeed, it is almost true to say that these factors are endemic and thus cannot be totally eradicated. What are therefore the solution particularly taken into account the vulnerability of the Niger Delta people?
Firstly, alternative energy use must be put in place; such energy use like wind and solar energy must be embraced. This will reduce the present energy regime of burning electlicity and churning out carbondioxide. The alternative energy left will erase or reduce the use of generators that is a common place in every house hold in Nigeria. Therefore, rather than generating more mega watts of electricity without knowing the dangerous implication of the effect to the people of Nigeria, as quoted by the vice president, recently, more effort be directed at engaging in wind and solar energy as practiced currently in advance and developed societies.
Secondly, clean development mechanism as currently in place in USA should be totally embraced. This involves all friendly environmental practices that are not only sustainable but will endure all weather and remain human friendly. These practices will eradicate the growth of carbon emission companies; encourage the adoption of petroleum production, distribution processes that are environmentally safe and friendly, a safe refuse disposal systems, alternative local cooking energy system, and alternative use of fallowed bush for Agriculture that will not involve buming, plant treatment chemicals and a lot more.
In addition to the above short term measures out- lined above, the government of Nigeria should, as a matter of urgency, place more emphasis now on Agriculture and other alternative import and export sources of income rather than the oil and gas sectors. More than any other factor, gas flare and carbon emission from the oil and gas companies have contributed more to climate change in the Niger Delta region than any other factor. If the government does not see beyond the amnesty and continue to dig deep into devastating sector (oil and gas), then the lives of the Niger Delta people is not only short- changed but shall remain precarious. The time to act is now, even as the Nation awaits the outcome of the meeting of the heads of states and government at Copenhagen Denmark on climate change, we must warn ourselves of the impending natural disaster in this region. Noting that natural disasters are not preventable but its effect can be minimised by conscious positive act from human beings. Climate change can be reduced by concerted positive actions by man that will improve his environment.
The poor people and region of the Niger Delta should be prepared to face any natural disaster, but we plead God’s mercy and pray that our leaders act now and listen to the world in Denmark come December 7.
S. C. Dike
Clean Energy For Cleaner Earth
The modern world in the 21st century needs to jellyroll its old ways and practices that have caused environmental degradation, pollution, global warming, ozone layer depletion culminating in climate change. These ways and practices include greenhouse gases emissions, deforestation which is common in the Third World, air pollution from fossil fuels, desertification, etc; hence the need to embrace cleaner fuel, cleaner energy and cleaner environment.
The Earth is witnessing more natural disasters now than at any period of time occasioned by human factors and natural effects. Deforestation, caused by tree felling without replacement for the purpose of cooking or energy source which is still rampant in developing countries. There is also the melting of glaciers caused by increase in temperature that swells the volume of oceans and seas around the world. Heat wave is now in a greater magnitude in Europe, the Americas and North Africa as recent reports show than at any other time. It also includes the Tsunamis of 2011, especially the one hit Japan and other Islands in Asia, and the Fikushima nuclear disaster with so devastating effect.
The world should not forget in a hurry Hurricane Katrina of 2005 that caused unimaginable catastrophe to the people of USA. There had been some other disasters like typhoons and cyclones affecting the United States and Central America. Only recently, there were wildfires in Canada, the United States and parts of Europe, including Australia. Wildfires also devastated the Amazon forest in Brazil some years ago.
This year, countries like Germany, Belgium and parts of the Netherlands experienced heavy flooding with the water (flood) level reaching very high levels and causing terrible devastation to homes, business, schools, power lines and communication facilities. Also, there has been unusual torrential rainfall coupled with thunder storm/rainstorm leaving in its wake massive destruction of homes and livelihoods in Africa and Asia, particularly South East Asia, West Africa and Latin American countries.
The green house gases emissions which is most common in the advanced countries of the northern hemisphere sometimes described as high income nations, has contributed a lot to ozone layer depletion and global warming. And they are not doing much to cut back emissions level as agreed in the protocols adopted at the World Climate Convention of 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the Kyoto Climate Convention in Japan and other such conventions.
Declining green vegetation and inadequate forest resource in most of our urban and rural settlements due to urbanisation and massive construction of roads, buildings, dams and power stations and other harmful human activities as deforestation for different purposes have all contributed in no small measure to cause global warming and environmental degradation.
In this millennium, governments all over the world and humans have done much harm to the environment and the ecosystem than any other. Also to be blamed is the global dependence and use of fossil fuel for running the industries, machines and automobiles and to power homes and factories. Added to the above factor is the reluctance or unwillingness of governments to take a more pragmatic approach and action against harmful acts and practices that degrade the environment and pollute the air, atmosphere thereby contributing to ozone later depletion and climate change.
Worthy of mention is the action of the President Barak Obama administration of the United States who took a hard stand and came on heavily on the oil giant British Petroleum (BP) when they polluted the Gulf of Mexico from their negligence. He ordered them to clean up the environment, pay compensation for the damage and to stop all of their operations.
Our ecosystem, marine life, the wetlands, seas, oceans and rivers, the animals, insects, birds, microbes and micro-organisms, including the green vegetation would thrive well and better with cleaner environment. Any wonder the new paradigm is cleaner fuels, cleaner energy and cleaner environment. This new modern technology that has been embraced and put in use by some advanced countries of the world include wind energy, solar energy and gas-powered energy, nuclear energy etc.
The cleaner energy and cleaner fuels (also known as renewable energy) have come to stay and have done so much good to mitigate climate change, ozone layer depletion and global warming. This renewable energy is the energy for the future and the right way for the world to go. Environmental friendliness and respect for the rights of the environment will guarantee cleaner and healthier air/atmosphere with a safer and better ecosystem. Also, the bio-diversity will be preserved.
It was observed by an American scientific journal two decade ago, that ‘a summer heat wave in western Europe killed 15,000 people in France, and it went further to state that, like other extreme climate events … it is expected to become more common’. Furthermore, it was observed that the strongest El Nino in 100 years that made global temperature spike occurred and in 2005 the temperature trend is on an upward rise.
These observations and quotes lend further buttress the reality and fact of global warming and the ozone layer depletion. As opined earlier, solar energy — one of the cleaner fuels and cleaner energy — is energy generated from the sun rays absorbed by a panel of photovoltaic cells and which can generate considerable amount of power when exposed to the sunlight and has capacity to store energy for long use even if there is no sunshine like when it is raining or so. This makes it very suitable for countries in the tropics where there is abundant sunshine all year round.
Also in parts of the world or countries that enjoy sunshine for some parts of the year. This solar energy is clean, safe, convenient, very reliable and environmentally friendly; likewise the wind energy, which is derived from windmills driven by the force of the wind and generates power by the force that drives the turbines to produce electricity. You can have many windmills in a location called wind farm, and their combined force can power a large town or city. Again this energy is clean, convenient, reliable safe and environmentally friendly.
Similarly, nuclear energy which is got from uranium can be used to generate electricity by a nuclear reactor that can power large towns, cities and industries. To generate electricity for peaceful purpose not for military purpose and you would need to get approval from the International Energy Agency (IEA). It is also a clean, reliable, convenient and environmental friendly mode of generating electricity.
Lastly, gas powered energy is another cleaner way and mode of generating power through driving electric motor-turbines by gas energy to produce electricity. This mode of energy and power is very reliable, clean and convenient. Additionally, our environment would be healthier, safer, even life expectancy and longevity in our communities and countries would be enhanced and better livelihoods or our means of sustenance would be guaranteed and protected. Since our ecosystem, atmosphere, seas, oceans, rivers, wetlands, vegetations and forests, animals, insects, and birds sustain life and existence.
There is a strong need to preserve nature, especially our endangered species. Most of these species are already going extinct. But if our forests are allowed to be what they are meant to be, our marine life, lands, microbes and micro-organism would thrive and have a friendly environment and habitat for a more sustainable planet. In Africa, and particularly the Niger Delta where there has been extensive exploration and production of petroleum, the environment has suffered extensive degradation and pollution which has increased global warming and ozone layer depletion. This has led to devastation of livelihoods, marine life and the ecosystem. And it needs proper and adequate remediation.
The world governments, leaders and international organisations must do more to mitigate climate change, ozone layer depletion and global warming. And of course, the Earth would be a better, happier and healthier planet if we go for cleaner fuels, cleaner energy and an environmentally friendlier globe.
By: Samson Ayooso
Ayooso wrote from Port Harcourt.
Discovering Your Life’s Purpose
What is Purpose?
Discovering one’s purpose is discovering what one needs in life. Discovering what you are meant to be in life. Not what you want to be but what God wants you to be in life. You can never discover your purpose without the help of God.
Ask Yourself Some Questions
You can discover your purpose when you start asking yourself some questions and give answers to such as “what do I need in life?” (Your purpose in life) by finding your purpose, you will know what you need in life and life will be easy for you. Sometimes, we want every good thing in life but what really matters is not what you want but what you need in life. People respect you when you discover your purpose and start making serious decisions. God is your creator and what he needs from you is your purpose. Discovering your purpose on time makes you more successful in life, you need to focus on the present, look forward, think big, do what you love, stay positive, be persistent, get the job done, fight for something you believe in. To be a successful being in life, you also need to manage your time effectively.
Sometimes, people find themselves doing or studying what they don’t need. Your potentials determine your purpose in life, don’t feel bad on yourself because, with the right information, your purpose is sure. You will get to a place in life and these things will be very useful to you.
Nothing happens as a mistake; they all have their purpose to fulfill in life. Spend at least one hour or thirty minutes every day to do what you have passion for.
Time management has a very big role to play in discovering one’s purpose in life. Why most people suffer a lot in life is because they waste too much of their time doing nothing. We sleep too much; we rest too much; let’s make every moment to be useful. Sleeping too much won’t do us any good. Push yourself because no one else is going to do it for you. The fact that you are not where you want to be should be enough motivation.
Life without purpose is time without meaning. It is useless to keep ample time if there is no end towards which we are moving. God calls you in this world for you to discover your purpose and work towards it. Your plans cannot change God’s purpose. What God calls for, he provides for.
Sometimes people will say I want to be rich in life. If you said so, fine, then learn how to manage your time and discover your purpose in life. Most times, our parents do destroy our destiny by forcing us to study what we are not meant to just because they had a dream of studying it but were not opportuned to. Parents should ask knowledge from God so as to know what their children need in life.
Procrastination can damage you from going far in life. To be successful and fulfill your purpose in life, you need not to postpone what should be done now. Procrastination is a grave in which opportunities are buried. In life, many people have missed their chance of success because of postponement.
All the pain of yesterday can be forgotten tomorrow if we know how to manage our time effectively and discover our purpose in life. For your management of time not to be in vain, you need to concentrate on one thing such as what you love to do, because it is no good to do everything at the same time (he who is everywhere is nowhere).
Everybody wants to go to school, have their certificates, and be a hard worker in life. But is that all there is in life? Imagine if everyone in the universe goes to school, have their good certificates and work in very good places in life, then who will be the cleaner? Who will be the security guard? Who will be the house maid? How you see life is much more than you think. Purpose is only found in the mind of the creator. Only God knows the purpose for your life.
Now you can see why everybody cannot be rich in this life; neither will everyone be poor in life. The term rich would not exist if there are not poor people existing in this world. The terms rich and poor are given because people have and people lack.
You can never change how you have been created and what you have been created for no matter what. You being a cleaner is because there must always be someone dusting up the place. If there is a man to dust, there will always be a man to clean up also. If your purpose is to be a cleaner, be the best cleaner ever. Cleaning is not just ordinary, you can achieve excellence in cleaning. Excellence in doing ordinary things extraordinarily well.
Every product is produced by purpose, for a purpose, and all things begin and end with purpose. Your existence is an evidence that this generation needs something that your life contains.
The reason why you exist in your family is because there is something that has to be done in your family and it’s only you that can do it; no one else. If you are born into a poor family it’s not your fault, but it will only be your fault if you remain there, because you have been born in to a family to make great things happen by managing your time and discovering your purpose in life.
You can start by having a time table in your house such as time to study, time to do what you love, what you have passion for. And in the process of studying, anything you seem not to understand, you do well to ask someone that knows it more than you. Don’t feel shy to ask because no one knows everything but everyone knows something.
You can also help others to discover their purpose by changing your mindset, especially with the way you think and the way you communicate with them. Let people see you as a person that really knows your purpose in life. Let people see your good lifestyle and try to build theirs also.
Always do things at the right time. Or better do something even if it is late than not to do it at all. Conclusively, a man can’t exist without having a purpose in life, your existence is an evidence that God has a purpose in you and this purpose can be discovered with the help of God, and also by management of time. I know we can’t help everyone, but everyone can help someone. We can change the world by fulfilling our purpose in life. Nothing is impossible.
By: Endurance Osadebe
Osadebe wrote in from Eastern Polytechnic, Port Harcourt.
Re: Wike, Combat And Cant: Negative Criticism Taken Too Far
Our attention has been drawn to the article published in the “Hardball” column of The Nation Newspaper on Tuesday, September 28, 2021, titled: “Wike, Combat and Cant” and we cannot help but laugh once again at the manic obsessiveness, which the author of this particular ‘Hardball’ segment, has with everything that has to do with Governor Nyesom Wike.
However, what is rather very disturbing in this constant display of professional mercantilism and the unrestrained effort to mislead the people and misinterpret every action and comment of Governor Wike.
One must say, it is rather shameful for a journalist to resort to the penchant of subtle, yet crude and dangerous slander, to attack anybody who dares to challenge the status quo.
Governor Wike’s remarks at the Interdenominational Thanksgiving Service in commemoration of the Nation’s 61st Independence Anniversary, at St. Paul’s Cathedral, Diobu, Port Harcourt, on Sunday, September 26, 2021, represents the heart cry of every patriotic Nigerian.
Those who listened to his comments, will also agree that the summary of what Governor Wike said was that enemity, hatred, division have become the definining indices of Nigeria today at 61 years.
He said Nigeria is a dysfunctional nation, where the judiciary has been intimidated, children are not in schools and doctors not in hospitals as a result of endless strikes. According to him, credible elections cannot be conducted and the National Assembly has become a place where anything goes in favour of the government in power, even if it is not in the interest of the people.
Sadly, only Nigerians who are feeding fat from such a country and indeed journalists like the author with his obvious anti-libertarian counter progressive propaganda, which promote and protect the interest of these individuals, will disagree with Governor Wike’s observations and even go ahead to cast puerile aspersion with pedestrian examples on his comments.
Suffice it to say that at a time when majority of Nigerians have been numbed into a development hiatus by the overwhelming suffocation of poverty, censorship, insecurity, nepotism, administrative ineptitude and a certain form of political autocracy which have all been elevated dangerously to statecraft and existential norm, a journalist who should professionally serve as the voice and conscience of the people has become the very instrument to justify these anti-development onslaught on the people.
What is even more worrisome is the realization that the author, rather than raise alarm over the deliberate polarization of the country along all the major incendiary fault lines of ethnicity, religion, partisan seclusion, intimidation and persecution, selective inquisitions and all the divisive tendencies which have sadly reversed all the gains made over 61 years, has now embraced the fifth column business of hounding those who speak up against these ills.
To even describe Governor Wike’s comments during that interdenominational church service, as “combat and cant’ as the writer did with misplaced elitist authority, is so unfortunate that it shamelessly exposed the real hypocrisy of a journalist and his sponsors, who are not only living in regrettable, unpardonable denial, but are the very dangerous ilk who are constantly and deliberately subverting national consciousness and turning the glaring truth of what Nigeria has become, on its head.
It is indeed a crying shame that we have in the last six years, transformed quite pathetically, into a nation where for example, state Governors, whose voices ought to be resonating loudly against the impunity that undermines our democratic federalism, have been brow-beaten into a complicit silence, as we watch in helpless horror, the systematic regression and overhaul of a nation’s development garnered painstakingly over 61 years.
Nigeria has never been more divided at any time in its 61 years history than it is today. The country is presently in a dangerous connundrum of identity crises stoked and fuelled by the continued endorsement and justification of leadership impunity and docility by the likes of the writer. Is it any wonder therefore that Governor Wike’s voice is the only one resonating loudly, clearly and independently against these manifestation, as we celebrate the auspicious occasion of our independence as a country that is 61 years old?
Ironically, even many of the leaders who have chosen to couch these desperate times in hopeful platitudes, celebrate the reversal of national essence with choice phrases and pretend with motivational innuendos that a nation which totters precariously on the brink of self implosion and immolation, is making progress, know deep down in their hearts that they are lying to their people.
Governor Wike has proven time and again that he is a courageous, bold, focused and determined leader, who will say a thing like it is and not address it by any other name, just to sound politically correct and please some people.
By the way, at the end of his exhortation, Governor Wike called on the congregation, with the permission of the Church, to join him and the choir to sing the first and last stanzas of the Hymn, SSS 577: “I need Thee Every Hour”. This was indeed quite apt and poignant, to capture the mood and state of affairs in our country today.
There’s definitely no doubt whatsoever that Nigeria needs help at this time in our nation’s evolution, as we celebrate 61 years of Independence.
Nsirim is the Commissioner for Information and Communications, Rivers State.
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