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Editorial

Nigeria’s Goal Of Eliminating Malaria

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Nigeria joined the rest of the world to celebrate World Malaria Day on April 25th. At a press briefing to
commemorate the special day, the Minister of Health, Dr Osagie Ehanire, announced that the country had applied for and received approval for the RTS,S/ASO1 malaria vaccine during the most recent application window on April 18th, 2023. We hope that by the time the vaccine becomes accessible in April 2024, the fight against malaria will have advanced significantly.
April 25 signifies the yearly observance of World Malaria Day, which enhances consciousness concerning the significance of persistent financial backing and political determination towards the prevention and control of malaria. This year, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has suggested the widespread administration of the RTS,S/ASO1 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine to children residing in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions that encounter moderate to high Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission.
The designated theme for WMD 2023 is ‘Time to deliver zero malaria: invest, innovate, implement,’ which serves as a call to action to utilise existing tools and strategies to provide aid to those in the Western Pacific who require it. First introduced in 2008, the concept of WMD was inspired by Africa Malaria Day, an event held annually since 2001. The decision to rebrand the occasion was reached during the 60th session of the World Health Assembly in 2007, with the objective of acknowledging malaria’s global prevalence.
Nigeria has recognised the vaccine trials aimed at preventing clinical malaria in children aged between five and 36 months. This explanation was made by Mojisola Adeyeye, the Director-General of the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC). Ghana has already approved the vaccine, but Nigeria can surpass them by implementing more aggressive measures such as better funding, dogged trials, testing and revitalisation of all malaria control programmes.
The President of the Dangote Group, Aliko Dangote, urged global stakeholders to collaborate in eradicating malaria by 2030. In a statement released on April 25th, Dangote emphasized the need for joint efforts to combat the disease which has caused significant human suffering and economic damage to global productivity. He believes that urgent investment, innovation, and implementation by relevant stakeholders can effectively reduce the spread of malaria worldwide.
Our nation must lead the way in innovative research and preventive measures to combat malaria, especially considering Dangote’s challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of commitment to eradication and control programmes, corruption, incompetence, and a poor healthcare delivery system has allowed malaria to continue to spread.
Malaria is a severe illness caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted to humans by infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Symptoms include high fever, chills, and loss of appetite. The WHO reports that it infects approximately 290 million people worldwide with malaria each year. Nigeria has the unfortunate distinction of being the country with the highest number of malaria cases and deaths in the world.
The 2021 World Malaria Report as published by the WHO establishes that Nigeria is accountable for 27 per cent of the global cases of malaria, with every one in four individuals affected. Moreover, the nation bears responsibility for 32 per cent of the worldwide deaths arising from malaria, with roughly one in three deaths being attributed to the disease. The World Malaria Day serves as an auspicious occasion to critically evaluate the strides achieved in combating this disease and to measure the level of Nigeria’s dedication towards eliminating it.
For the previous two decades, Nigeria has been endeavouring to combat malaria with varied outcomes. Despite the government’s strenuous attempts to eradicate the disease, it continues to persist as a significant source of mortality in the nation. It is imperative to acknowledge that roughly 11 per cent of maternal fatalities, 30 per cent of child mortalities, and 60 per cent of visits to healthcare facilities as outpatients are attributable to this affliction.
Malaria remains a formidable challenge in Africa, with Nigeria bearing a significant burden, notwithstanding various eradication campaigns. It is still a pressing concern, and a comprehensive strategy must be developed to counter the transmission of the ailment in the area. Currently, the World Health Organisation has endorsed 40 countries and territories as being malaria-free, with recent additions such as El Salvador (2021), Algeria (2019), Argentina (2019), Paraguay (2018), and Uzbekistan (2018).
The WHO’s Western Pacific Region has recently bestowed upon China the prestigious certification of being malaria-free, making it the first nation in the region to attain such a status in more than three decades. Notably, other countries that have been awarded with this designation consist of Australia (1981), Singapore (1982), and Brunei Darussalam (1987). In Europe, a synergistic approach involving the utilisation of insecticides, drug therapy, and environmental engineering was employed towards the eradication of malaria.
A multifaceted and multi-layered approach is necessary to eradicate and control the spread of the disease in Nigeria. Local governments must prioritise reviving and revitalising sanitary inspections, desilting and cleaning gutters, weeding bushes, preventing water stagnation, launching rigorous campaigns for vector control, and spraying pesticides to ensure community safety and health.
According to the National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria imported anti-malarial drugs worth N65.98 billion and N43.47 billion in the third and fourth quarters of 2020. In the past six months, the country imported drugs worth N109.46 billion from six countries, including India, China, Germany, the US, Pakistan, and the Netherlands. Ehanire disclosed that Nigerians spent N480 billion annually on malaria treatment, prevention, and human resources.
The National Malaria Elimination Plan for 2022 is Brazil’s latest endeavour, with a goal of reducing malaria infections to less than 68,000 by 2025, eliminating all fatalities caused by the disease by 2030, and ultimately eradicating it by 2035. Similarly, we urge Nigeria to align all current initiatives, including the vaccination campaign, while engaging all levels of government, with a focus on eradicating the disease within the next decade.
There is a crucial need for an extensive educational initiative to promote the uptake of the malaria vaccination. It is noteworthy that several political and religious personalities launched a significant anti-vaccine campaign against the COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Such a negative disposition should be avoided when it comes to the administration of the malaria vaccine. The approval of this vaccine represents a tangible demonstration of the government’s commitment to innovation and advancement in the fight against malaria. Thus, it is required that the forthcoming administration sustains this laudable effort.

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Editorial

CBN And Nigeria’s Cash Crunch

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Nigerians have, again, been thrust into desperation as they grapple with cash shortage that has cast a dark shadow over their daily lives. Months after the Supreme Court’s ruling permitting the coexistence of the old and new naira notes, the crisis persists, leaving countless individuals struggling to secure basic necessities.
The scarcity of naira notes has partially crippled commerce throughout the country, especially in the informal sector. Businesses are incapacitated, unable to complete transactions efficiently, resulting in a slowdown of economic activities. Some people are left in dire straits, desperate for cash to meet essential expenses such as food, transportation, and healthcare, among others.
The cash crisis has created a fertile ground for unscrupulous elements and businesses to engage in predatory tactics. Retailers are exploiting the despair of consumers by overcharging for goods, while others hoard cash to sell at inflated prices. This rampant profiteering has further burdened the already strained financial resources of many Nigerians.
It is deeply concerning that while the citizens are still contending with the fallout of a failed disastrous currency redesign policy last year, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has initiated another misguided scheme that has exacerbated the scarcity of the legal tender. This ill-conceived move is implemented at a time when Nigerians are already struggling with inflation, rising unemployment, and declining living standards. The CBN’s actions have only served to compound their plight.
The timing of the plan is particularly cruel and demonstrates a fundamental lack of consideration for the well-being of ordinary Nigerians. The Central Bank has failed to adequately assess the severe consequences of its policies on the lives of citizens, who are now compelled to endure an atmosphere of uncertainty and hardship.
Despite the apex bank’s assurances of sufficient naira notes in circulation, the cash dilemma continues to torment Nigerians. The situation has worsened following introduction of withdrawal limits by the nation’s financial authorities, leading to an increased reliance on Point-of-Sale (POS) terminals. However, this dependence has come at a steep cost.
POS service providers have taken undue advantage of the shortage by imposing exorbitant charges, further burdening consumers. The surge in charges has negated the convenience of POS transactions, driving up the overall cost of obtaining cash. The CBN’s claims of adequate cash supply ring hollow in light of the predatory practices of POS operators.
Currently, naira scarcity has gripped major cities across the country, with Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) running dry and commercial banks introducing withdrawal limits. Consequently, POS operators have compassed the moment to exploit the situation. Investigations have revealed that some bank officials who own POS businesses, channel cash meant for the public to these outfits. This is economic sabotage. These unpatriotic Nigerians must be identified and punished appropriately.
The Acting Director of Corporate Communications at the CBN, Mrs Hakama Sidi Ali, has acknowledged that there has been a rise in the amount of money in circulation. However, she claims that the scarcity of cash is due to individuals hoarding it. This explanation contradicts the actual situation on the ground, as numerous banks have been unable to fulfil the daily requests for cash withdrawals.
This is why it is required for the Federal Government to promptly intervene and resolve the difference between what the Central Bank asserts and the actual availability of cash. They should contemplate raising the limits for cash withdrawals, improving access to banking services in areas that lack sufficient coverage, and partnering with mobile money platforms to offer alternative payment options.
To restore confidence in the banking system and help Nigerians affected by the current liquidity crisis, it is necessary to make coordinated attempts to increase the amount of cash in circulation. This can be achieved by taking strict actions against unfair point of sale charges and implementing measures to safeguard consumers from excessive profit-making. The Central Bank can address the liquidity crisis by implementing these steps, and provide relief to the suffering population.
While we promote alternative modes of payment, including electronic channels, to reduce pressure on cash, the authorities must recognise that resolving the cash crunch is not merely an economic issue. It is a matter of social justice. Every Nigerian deserves easy access to their hard-earned money without being subjected to inordinate drudgery. The government has a moral responsibility to address this crisis swiftly and effectively to restore financial stability and ensure the well-being of all its citizens.

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Editorial

Nigeria: Need For Accurate Population Data

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This year’s World Population Day serves as a poignant reminder of the critical importance of accurate population data in Nigeria. The theme for the year, “Interwoven Lives, Threads of Hope: Ending Inequalities in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights,” brings to light the pressing need for the nation to address the repercussions of overpopulation and safeguard the fundamental human rights of all its inhabitants. It emphasises the necessity of implementing effective strategies and initiatives to enhance sexual and reproductive health services and ensure equitable access to these vital resources.
Population experts stress that the exponential rise in global population poses substantial challenges to human well-being and the environment. As India is on track to surpass China as the most populous country, Nigeria’s population of approximately 226.2 million underscores its significant demographic influence. However, the lack of recent census data since 2006 has left the actual figures subject to speculation, hampering efficient planning and resource allocation efforts.
The disparities in population sizes between India and the United States underscore the shifting dynamics on the global stage. With India projected to exceed China’s population by 2027, its expanding demographic weight will undoubtedly influence economic, political, and social relations worldwide. As the world’s largest democracy, India’s swelling population presents both opportunities and challenges, such as driving economic growth and innovation while also straining resources and infrastructure.
Conversely, the United States, with a smaller global population share, may encounter distinct obstacles related to an ageing population and diminishing workforce. Understanding and addressing these demographic trends are essential for policymakers and leaders in both countries to navigate the intricate issues of the 21st century effectively.
The unchecked population growth in Nigeria has engendered an array of socio-economic challenges that are becoming increasingly difficult to overlook. Instances of extreme poverty, food insecurity, and environmental deterioration stand as stark indicators of the urgent need for intervention. With over 133 million Nigerians grappling with multidimensional poverty, it is evident that targeted interventions are imperative to alleviate the plight of the most vulnerable segments of society.
A study conducted by various organisations in 2022 has shed light on the harsh realities of poverty in Nigeria, with a staggering 133 million individuals affected. This comprehensive assessment not only considers income levels but also incorporates critical dimensions like education, healthcare, living standards, and economic stability. The findings underscore the pressing need for strategic interventions aimed at tackling the underlying causes of deprivation and uplifting the most marginalised populations.
The anticipated reverberations of ending petrol subsidies and merging the naira exchange rates in 2023 are expected to push an additional seven million Nigerians into poverty, underscoring the unintended adverse effects of economic policies on the most marginalised sectors of society. Given this scenario, it is obligatory for the Federal Government to collaborate with pertinent stakeholders to devise and implement a comprehensive population plan that addresses the root causes of overpopulation and poverty.
At the core of Nigeria’s population predicament lies a complex interplay of factors, including child marriages, limited educational access, misconceptions surrounding family planning, and cultural and religious norms hindering women’s reproductive health access. To counter these challenges effectively, concerted efforts must be concentrated on raising awareness about reproductive rights, advocating for girls’ education, and ensuring universal access to family planning services.
Empowering women with the necessary resources and information is high-priority in reducing unplanned pregnancies and child marriages, which are compelling obstacles to achieving a more equitable and sustainable population growth trajectory. This can be achieved through comprehensive education and accessible healthcare infrastructure, which not only alleviate poverty but also contribute to the overall well-being of the population.
Moreover, Nigeria should place a strong emphasis on environmental conservation and a shift towards renewable energy sources to counteract the adverse effects of overpopulation on the ecosystem. By embracing sustainable development practices, Nigeria can ensure a future where its population can flourish while preserving the health of the planet.
With the advent of a new era marked by the leadership of President Bola Tinubu, the accurate collection, analysis, and utilisation of population data should become central to national policymaking. Only through precise data and a robust population plan can Nigeria effectively address disparities in sexual and reproductive health, empower its people, and lay the groundwork for a prosperous future for generations to come.
Undeniably, Nigeria stands at a precarious juncture where obtaining accurate population data is imperative to tackle the multifaceted challenges associated with overpopulation. Prioritising the collection of precise demographic information, implementing targeted interventions, and fostering a culture of empowerment and sustainability, will pave the way for a more equitable and prosperous future for Nigerians.

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Editorial

Enough Of The Terrorist Threat

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For over a decade, Nigeria’s security forces have been fighting insurgent groups and bandits to restore peace in the country. The military leadership in Abuja regularly meets with stakeholders to discuss progress in their counter-terrorism efforts, highlighting successes such as eliminating insurgents, capturing perpetrators, rescuing hostages, and seizing weapons.
The Strategic Communications Interagency Policy Community (SCIPC), operating under the Office of the National Security Adviser (ONSA) in Abuja, has recently released a comprehensive report detailing the huge accomplishments made by security, defence, and response agencies within the past year. This report serves as a testament to the unwavering efforts and dedication of these agencies in safeguarding the nation and its citizens.
It highlights the remarkable progress made in intelligence gathering and surveillance capabilities. Security agencies have deployed cutting-edge technologies and strengthened international partnerships, resulting in the timely detection and prevention of potential threats.
The Nigerian military has made giant strides in combating terrorism and other security challenges in the country, according to the Director of Defence Media Operations, Maj. Gen. Edward Buba. In the past year alone, troops operating in the northern parts of the country have neutralised over 9,300 terrorists and apprehended nearly 7,000 more. Additionally, over 9,500 Boko Haram and ISWAP fighters, along with their families, have surrendered to security forces.
In an update on the security situation, Maj. Gen. Buba highlighted the rescue of 4,641 hostages, demonstrating the military’s commitment to protecting civilians. Furthermore, authorities have arrested over 1,400 suspected oil thieves and recovered stolen crude oil products worth an estimated N91.2 billion, effectively curbing illegal activities in the energy sector.
Over 1,700 kidnap victims were successfully rescued by the police. They have recovered a substantial number of vehicles and motorcycles, as well as firearms and ammunition, effectively disrupting criminal networks and enhancing public safety. These achievements underscore the unwavering determination of the security agencies to ensure the well-being and security of the Nigerian populace.
The one-year report presents an overview of the ongoing efforts by security operatives to combat the pervasive threat posed by criminal elements in various regions of Nigeria. Particularly noteworthy is the diligent work being carried out in the North-East, where extremist groups such as Boko Haram, ISWAP, and Ansaru continue to sow the seed of crises and insecurity. In the North-West and North-Central regions, the proliferation of bandit cells has turned these areas into volatile conflict zones.
Also grappling with separatist violence orchestrated by groups like the Eastern Security Network (ESN), affiliated with the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), is the South-East. This multi-faceted security challenge has prompted coordinated military operations across all 36 states of the nation, aimed at neutralising the diverse threats posed by criminal organisations and extremist factions.
However, the recent reports, detailing the activities of ISWAP in Borno State, raise serious concerns. In specific instances, ISWAP has been reported to have conducted open court sessions in villages near Lake Chad. During these sessions, the group attempts to recruit residents by propagating its extremist ideology and urging individuals to join their violent cause. Disturbing images have surfaced of masked terrorists addressing local residents and persuading them to back the establishment of a caliphate.
ISWAP members are promising potential recruits better governance, security, and basic amenities in their envisioned new state. They are also distributing welfare packages to households to recruit new members. These tactics show the dangerous nature of the organisation and the vulnerable situation of communities in the region. The spread of extremist ideologies and false promises are a serious threat to peace and stability in the area.
Numerous communities in Nigeria continue to face security problems as they are under the control of terrorist groups, despite the efforts made by the military in the fight against terrorism. Kukawa Local Government Area, known for its fishing and farming activities, is particularly vulnerable, with reports indicating that most areas in the region are currently under the control of ISWAP terrorists. In January, two fishermen in the Marte area of Borno reportedly had their hands severed by the terrorists over suspected theft.
In the North, farmers and fishermen have to pay taxes to terrorists to access their land or risk being brutally killed. Nigeria must address both the ideological and military aspects of the conflict to defeat groups like ISWAP. Simply citing numbers of terrorists neutralised or arrested will not end the prolonged insurgency.
Given the country’s current economic crisis and the difficulty in sustaining the ongoing warfare, the Office of the National Security Adviser, in collaboration with the military high command, should formulate a strategic plan with achievable objectives and deadlines to eradicate the terrorist threat. However, this task cannot be accomplished without disrupting the supply chain of the insurgents, including their sources of manpower and funding.

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