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Editorial

Providing Succour To Terror Victims

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To apparently cushion the debilitating effects of violence and terrorism on victims across the world, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed August 21 every year as the International Day for Remembrance of Victims of Terrorism. It equally adopted another resolution, proclaiming August 22 every year, as International Day commemorating Victims of Acts of Violence Based on Religion or Belief, among other matters, and directed member countries to religiously observe the two days as befitting tributes to all victims of terror attacks and violence based on their faith, all over the world.
The commemoration of the two days on Wednesday and Thursday, this week, in Nigeria and other countries, brings to the fore the plight of victims of the twin evils of terrorism and violence based on religion or belief in these countries.
There is no gainsaying that several persons have become victims of both terrorism and violence based on their faith or belief in several parts of the world.
While welcoming the decisions of the General Assembly to take these practical steps in honouring victims across the globe, the Secretary General of the United Nations, Antonio Guterres, said the day to commemorate victims of terrorism is intended to lift up the voices of victims and survivors of terrorist attacks, who consistently call for accountability and results.
He said, “When we respect the human rights of victims and provide them with support and information, we reduce the lasting damage done by terrorists to individuals, communities and societies”.
Unfortunately, while more countries are affected by terrorism today, the number of victims has largely been concentrated in a small number of countries of the world. According to statistics, in 2017 alone, nearly three-quarters of all deaths caused by terrorism were in just five countries: Nigeria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia and Syria.
Paradoxically, in all countries of the world, victims of terrorism continue to struggle to have their voices heard, have their needs supported and their rights upheld. Victims often feel forgotten and neglected once the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack and other violent attacks fades, a situation which can have profound consequences for them.
More worrisome is the fact that only few countries have the resources and the requisite capacity to meet the medium and long-term needs required by victims to fully recover, rehabilitate and integrate back into the society. Infact, victims can only recover and cope with their trauma through long-term multi-dimensional support, including physical, psychological, social and financial, in order to heal and live with dignity. Again, the primary responsibility to support victims of terrorism and uphold their rights rests squarely with the various governments of the world. On this score, synergy and collaboration are needed.
Similarly, following unprecedented rise of violence against religious communities and people belonging to religious communities across the world, in tandem with the United Nations’ bold initiative, there is no better time to begin addressing the challenges facing victims than now. Like victims of terrorism, victims and survivors of violence based on religion or belief, are often forgotten.
It is no longer a hidden fact that hatred towards religious groups may lead to killing of innocent people, particularly against the backdrop of one-third of the world’s population suffering from some form of religious persecution.
Also, acts of terrorism are intended to cajole and intimidate members of religious communities and, as a result, hold them back from practising their faith. In some countries, religious practice is forbidden even at home and, sometimes, the representatives of religious minorities are refused religious funerals.
More often than not, acts of terrorism in several countries of the world have their roots in religious extremism and fanatism. Islamic bigots and fanatics were suspected to be the brains behind the bombing of the World Trade Centre in the United States of America in September, 2001. Boko Haram insurgents in Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger, Chad and other countries in Africa are propelled by religious extremism and have continued to inflict incalculable damage to citizens of these countries for over 10 years now.
In Nigeria, for example, the terrorists have ravaged the North-East States of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, leaving in their wake tears and blood, with many citizens displaced. Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps are scattered here and there. This is coupled with the number of persons killed, maimed and displaced by suspected herdsmen and bandits in places like Benue, Plateau, Zamfara and Taraba States. In all these, victims and survivors have sordid tales to tell. In other cases, IDPs are raped, dehumanised and short-changed by persons entrusted with the responsibility of caring for them.
Again, the beheading of a female Christian preacher by religious bigots in Abuja recently, is still very fresh in the consciousness of most Nigerians. The cases of abduction and murder of priests, the disappearance and resettlement of religious leaders, torture and beating based on religion or belief by the police in some countries are only examples of the persecution and discriminatory behaviour towards religious minorities.
It is, however, heart-warming that the United Nations’ resolutions do not relate to any specific religion or belief but to all victims of violence and terrorism, and seek to raise awareness of the importance of respect for religious diversity, peace and tolerance in the world.
While The Tide commends the countries of the world for successfully commemorating the two international days, we call on their governments to take more practical steps to support victims of terrorism and violence based on religion and other beliefs. They should synergise and collaborate to help the victims.
Apart from providing a regional taskforce to counter insurgency and terrorism, African countries like Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, among others, can work together to provide succour to victims. It is never in doubt that governments of these countries have not done enough to cushion the devastating effects of terrorism and violence on the victims.
Again, most IDPs camps are nothing to write home about. The inmates of these camps are still left at the mercy of the elements and are buffeted on every side by the lack of funds, drugs, water, food and shelter. Also, providing them with basic education and other skills would go a long way to ameliorate their plight. The time for action is now.

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Editorial

Nigeria: Need For Accurate Population Data

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This year’s World Population Day serves as a poignant reminder of the critical importance of accurate population data in Nigeria. The theme for the year, “Interwoven Lives, Threads of Hope: Ending Inequalities in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights,” brings to light the pressing need for the nation to address the repercussions of overpopulation and safeguard the fundamental human rights of all its inhabitants. It emphasises the necessity of implementing effective strategies and initiatives to enhance sexual and reproductive health services and ensure equitable access to these vital resources.
Population experts stress that the exponential rise in global population poses substantial challenges to human well-being and the environment. As India is on track to surpass China as the most populous country, Nigeria’s population of approximately 226.2 million underscores its significant demographic influence. However, the lack of recent census data since 2006 has left the actual figures subject to speculation, hampering efficient planning and resource allocation efforts.
The disparities in population sizes between India and the United States underscore the shifting dynamics on the global stage. With India projected to exceed China’s population by 2027, its expanding demographic weight will undoubtedly influence economic, political, and social relations worldwide. As the world’s largest democracy, India’s swelling population presents both opportunities and challenges, such as driving economic growth and innovation while also straining resources and infrastructure.
Conversely, the United States, with a smaller global population share, may encounter distinct obstacles related to an ageing population and diminishing workforce. Understanding and addressing these demographic trends are essential for policymakers and leaders in both countries to navigate the intricate issues of the 21st century effectively.
The unchecked population growth in Nigeria has engendered an array of socio-economic challenges that are becoming increasingly difficult to overlook. Instances of extreme poverty, food insecurity, and environmental deterioration stand as stark indicators of the urgent need for intervention. With over 133 million Nigerians grappling with multidimensional poverty, it is evident that targeted interventions are imperative to alleviate the plight of the most vulnerable segments of society.
A study conducted by various organisations in 2022 has shed light on the harsh realities of poverty in Nigeria, with a staggering 133 million individuals affected. This comprehensive assessment not only considers income levels but also incorporates critical dimensions like education, healthcare, living standards, and economic stability. The findings underscore the pressing need for strategic interventions aimed at tackling the underlying causes of deprivation and uplifting the most marginalised populations.
The anticipated reverberations of ending petrol subsidies and merging the naira exchange rates in 2023 are expected to push an additional seven million Nigerians into poverty, underscoring the unintended adverse effects of economic policies on the most marginalised sectors of society. Given this scenario, it is obligatory for the Federal Government to collaborate with pertinent stakeholders to devise and implement a comprehensive population plan that addresses the root causes of overpopulation and poverty.
At the core of Nigeria’s population predicament lies a complex interplay of factors, including child marriages, limited educational access, misconceptions surrounding family planning, and cultural and religious norms hindering women’s reproductive health access. To counter these challenges effectively, concerted efforts must be concentrated on raising awareness about reproductive rights, advocating for girls’ education, and ensuring universal access to family planning services.
Empowering women with the necessary resources and information is high-priority in reducing unplanned pregnancies and child marriages, which are compelling obstacles to achieving a more equitable and sustainable population growth trajectory. This can be achieved through comprehensive education and accessible healthcare infrastructure, which not only alleviate poverty but also contribute to the overall well-being of the population.
Moreover, Nigeria should place a strong emphasis on environmental conservation and a shift towards renewable energy sources to counteract the adverse effects of overpopulation on the ecosystem. By embracing sustainable development practices, Nigeria can ensure a future where its population can flourish while preserving the health of the planet.
With the advent of a new era marked by the leadership of President Bola Tinubu, the accurate collection, analysis, and utilisation of population data should become central to national policymaking. Only through precise data and a robust population plan can Nigeria effectively address disparities in sexual and reproductive health, empower its people, and lay the groundwork for a prosperous future for generations to come.
Undeniably, Nigeria stands at a precarious juncture where obtaining accurate population data is imperative to tackle the multifaceted challenges associated with overpopulation. Prioritising the collection of precise demographic information, implementing targeted interventions, and fostering a culture of empowerment and sustainability, will pave the way for a more equitable and prosperous future for Nigerians.

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Editorial

Enough Of The Terrorist Threat

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For over a decade, Nigeria’s security forces have been fighting insurgent groups and bandits to restore peace in the country. The military leadership in Abuja regularly meets with stakeholders to discuss progress in their counter-terrorism efforts, highlighting successes such as eliminating insurgents, capturing perpetrators, rescuing hostages, and seizing weapons.
The Strategic Communications Interagency Policy Community (SCIPC), operating under the Office of the National Security Adviser (ONSA) in Abuja, has recently released a comprehensive report detailing the huge accomplishments made by security, defence, and response agencies within the past year. This report serves as a testament to the unwavering efforts and dedication of these agencies in safeguarding the nation and its citizens.
It highlights the remarkable progress made in intelligence gathering and surveillance capabilities. Security agencies have deployed cutting-edge technologies and strengthened international partnerships, resulting in the timely detection and prevention of potential threats.
The Nigerian military has made giant strides in combating terrorism and other security challenges in the country, according to the Director of Defence Media Operations, Maj. Gen. Edward Buba. In the past year alone, troops operating in the northern parts of the country have neutralised over 9,300 terrorists and apprehended nearly 7,000 more. Additionally, over 9,500 Boko Haram and ISWAP fighters, along with their families, have surrendered to security forces.
In an update on the security situation, Maj. Gen. Buba highlighted the rescue of 4,641 hostages, demonstrating the military’s commitment to protecting civilians. Furthermore, authorities have arrested over 1,400 suspected oil thieves and recovered stolen crude oil products worth an estimated N91.2 billion, effectively curbing illegal activities in the energy sector.
Over 1,700 kidnap victims were successfully rescued by the police. They have recovered a substantial number of vehicles and motorcycles, as well as firearms and ammunition, effectively disrupting criminal networks and enhancing public safety. These achievements underscore the unwavering determination of the security agencies to ensure the well-being and security of the Nigerian populace.
The one-year report presents an overview of the ongoing efforts by security operatives to combat the pervasive threat posed by criminal elements in various regions of Nigeria. Particularly noteworthy is the diligent work being carried out in the North-East, where extremist groups such as Boko Haram, ISWAP, and Ansaru continue to sow the seed of crises and insecurity. In the North-West and North-Central regions, the proliferation of bandit cells has turned these areas into volatile conflict zones.
Also grappling with separatist violence orchestrated by groups like the Eastern Security Network (ESN), affiliated with the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), is the South-East. This multi-faceted security challenge has prompted coordinated military operations across all 36 states of the nation, aimed at neutralising the diverse threats posed by criminal organisations and extremist factions.
However, the recent reports, detailing the activities of ISWAP in Borno State, raise serious concerns. In specific instances, ISWAP has been reported to have conducted open court sessions in villages near Lake Chad. During these sessions, the group attempts to recruit residents by propagating its extremist ideology and urging individuals to join their violent cause. Disturbing images have surfaced of masked terrorists addressing local residents and persuading them to back the establishment of a caliphate.
ISWAP members are promising potential recruits better governance, security, and basic amenities in their envisioned new state. They are also distributing welfare packages to households to recruit new members. These tactics show the dangerous nature of the organisation and the vulnerable situation of communities in the region. The spread of extremist ideologies and false promises are a serious threat to peace and stability in the area.
Numerous communities in Nigeria continue to face security problems as they are under the control of terrorist groups, despite the efforts made by the military in the fight against terrorism. Kukawa Local Government Area, known for its fishing and farming activities, is particularly vulnerable, with reports indicating that most areas in the region are currently under the control of ISWAP terrorists. In January, two fishermen in the Marte area of Borno reportedly had their hands severed by the terrorists over suspected theft.
In the North, farmers and fishermen have to pay taxes to terrorists to access their land or risk being brutally killed. Nigeria must address both the ideological and military aspects of the conflict to defeat groups like ISWAP. Simply citing numbers of terrorists neutralised or arrested will not end the prolonged insurgency.
Given the country’s current economic crisis and the difficulty in sustaining the ongoing warfare, the Office of the National Security Adviser, in collaboration with the military high command, should formulate a strategic plan with achievable objectives and deadlines to eradicate the terrorist threat. However, this task cannot be accomplished without disrupting the supply chain of the insurgents, including their sources of manpower and funding.

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Editorial

Learning From Kenya’s Protests

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In an effort to consolidate the fiscal framework and strengthen Kenya’s economy, President William Ruto introduced a controversial bill laden with punitive taxes. This bill targets essential commodities, inflating the cost of living through increased fuel prices, imposing additional duties on exports, and controversially taxing sanitary pads, a move that is antithetical to gender equity. This legislative measure, intended as an economic panacea, instead thrusts the dagger deeper into the vitals of an economy already reeling from decadent living standards and systemic inequality.
The incremental taxes included in the bill are in line with Keynesian economic principles, where government intervention is required to regulate economic activity. However, such intervention is intended to be facilitative, not oppressive. In the case of Kenya, the controversial taxes would have reverberated through the socioeconomic strata, exacerbating unemployment, increasing inflation, and squeezing the already meagre incomes of the working class.
In the face of these oppressive measures, the streets have become a place where Kenyans are strongly protesting against the oppressive actions of the government. The youth, who represent the future of the country, are passionately exercising their democratic right to protest against the injustice they face. This is not just a reaction to economic troubles, but a powerful statement of their fundamental right to live with dignity and free from poverty.
Following weeks of peaceful demonstrations against the proposed legislation, protesters rampaged through the parliament in Nairobi. Subsequently, Ruto authorised the deployment of both police and military forces to suppress the unrest. Regrettably, it has been reported that 13 protesters were killed and many others injured by the police. Such excessive force against civilians is completely unjustifiable. Rather than engaging in finger-pointing, the security officials responsible should face appropriate sanctions.
In 2022, the Ruto’s administration emerged victorious in the general elections in Kenya, coming into power with a commitment to enhance the living standards of the underprivileged and improve the overall conditions of millions of citizens. Notwithstanding the initial promises made during the election campaigns, the government faced the stark challenges of limited financial resources, considerable debts, and the consequent inability to promptly execute its promised agenda.
Undoubtedly, the sombre economic conditions compelled the government to implement the financial bill last year, introducing a housing tax and elevating the top personal income tax rate. This action incited dissatisfaction among substantial portions of the population, leading to public displays of outrage, street demonstrations, and in some cases, legal challenges against the government’s policies.
This bill that caused a lot of public demonstrations and unrest may suggest that Kenya’s political system is not properly representing and including all groups in society. This also raises questions about the role of parliament in making sure proposed laws are thoroughly discussed and debated, to prevent protests from turning violent. However, attacking the seat of legislative power does not help the cause of protestations. Instead, it undermines the very structures that allow people to participate in the political process and seek change.
Despite the withdrawal of the bill by Ruto and his accusation towards security forces for inaccurate intelligence, the protests have continued without pause. This situation highlights the lack of genuine democratic principles in Africa. The crisis is primarily related to the economy, as the government, with a GDP of $113.4 billion and a population of 54.03 million, has acknowledged being in debt and facing financial constraints. To address its $78 billion debt, the government contemplated raising taxes.
The government said the country would have a $31.1 billion budget deficit if it cancelled the planned tax increase. This is made worse by the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) recommendation that the country should expand the number of people and businesses that pay taxes; improve how well people and businesses pay their taxes and have a stricter financial policy to reduce the country’s debt problems. Similar to numerous African nations, Kenya is closely connected to the IMF.
Regrettably, many African leaders exhibit poor management of their nation’s economies, resulting in appalling hardships for the populace. The citizens are left to bear the consequences of their irresponsible handling of both domestic and international loans. It is necessary that African citizens exercise their voting power to remove ineffective and incompetent governments from office.
Nigeria has faced challenges due to past IMF advisories, like the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in the 1990s. The actions taken based on IMF recommendations, such as removal of petrol subsidy and floating of the naira, have harmed the economy and led to negative impacts like job losses and poverty. African leaders should give priority to implementing locally-developed policies to drive economic growth rather than relying on external financial agencies like the IMF and World Bank.
Regardless of President Ruto’s concession, some protesters still insist on continuing demonstrations until the government collapses. This would be unwise as it could lead to a disproportionate use of force, escalating tensions and potential fatalities. Protesters should avoid creating conditions for anti-democratic forces to disrupt the democratic system that allows citizens to peacefully demonstrate. In a democratic society, political change can be sought through the ballot box in the next elections.

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